NR 565 / NR565 Advanced Pharmacology Midterm Exam Review | Already Rated A | Latest, 2021/2022| Chamberlain College
1. What is the significance of VCO... [Show More] RC1 mutation?
- The significance of the VCORC1 mutation is that it is related to an individual exhibiting warfarin resistance since it plays a role in metabolizing the drug warfarin (Woo et al., 2016).
- This means that the individual is prone to an increased risk of bleeding which can lead to adverse outcomes for the individuals who exhibit this genetic mutation (Fereidouni et al., 2019).
- The VCORC1 mutation is responsible for producing a "subunit of the vitamin K epoxide reductase complex" (Woo et al., 2016).
- It is currently not required by the FDA to complete genetic testing prior to starting warfarin, but as practitioners we should encourage our patients to complete genetic testing so that we can accurately calculate the correct dosage for warfarin without creating significant adverse outcomes for these individuals.
2. Can you describe how new drugs are developed from the text?
- New drugs are developed by researches in a lab first by looking into disease processes and the medications that are used to help treat these disease processes.
- After looking at the medications to help treat disease better, researches look into how to make the medications be more effective with less toxicity or 'side effects'. in order to do this, researchers start preclinical research.
- During this phase researchers look into whether the drug is going to kill people or cause serious harm to people. then they go into the clinical phase.
- The clinical phase is where they use the preclinical phase data and come up with human research subjects. These usually consist of two groups (one getting the new medication and one getting a 'fake' medication (placebo).
- Then this leads to step 4 the FDA drug review where they come up with labels, safety updates, etc. Then they move on to the post market monitoring where they actually pay attention to the way the medication is being used and what for. (US Food and Drug Administration, 2018)
3. Explain what it means if a drug is an antagonist?
- An antagonist according to our text is a drug that takes over a receptor without stimulating that receptor.
- We see the medication blocking the response of an agonist to that receptor. Such as seen in a beta-blocker keeping the adrenergic nerve activity from increasing the heart rate and therefore able to help decrease the heart rate of the patient taking the medication. Antagonists can make the agonist appear less potent.
- The effect of the antagonist depends on that of the affinity for the receptor and the blood levels noted in the patient (Woo RN PhD ARNP CPNP-PC CNL FAANP, Teri Moser et al., 2015).
- Another example would be naltrexone. This medication is used in patients that want to not relapse in heroin or opioid usage.
- The medication blocks the receptors for the opioids and does not allow the drugs to connect to the receptors.
- The problem with this is that it can cause an overdose if there is a relapse (Pharmacological Treatment | Medication Assisted Recovery, n.d.).
4. What the terms efficacy and bioavailability mean?
- According to Woo & Robinson (2016), efficacy in medicine means the power of producing the maximum effect of a drug (Woo & Robinson, 2016, p. 14).
- When thinking about efficacy and medication, an example may include hypertension medication and how it lowers blood pressure but can also have an effect on other mechanisms in the body such as heart rate or kidney function.
- Patients who are prescribed new medication should be monitored closely on how it may affect the patient's outcome. It also states that drugs with [Show Less]