NASM NUTRITION,NASM CNC Exam Bundle Solutions Pack $18.95 Add To Cart
Which category includes glucose (sugar), starches, and non-digestible cellulose? A. Triglycerides B. Carbohydrates C. Fats D. Proteins - ANSWER-B. Carb... [Show More] ohydrates Between 1969/1971 and 1999/2001, global food consumption per person has risen by how much? A. Approximately 2,000 kcal per person per day B. Approximately 400 kcal per person per day C. Approximately 1,000 kcal per person per day D. Approximately 150 kcal per person per day - ANSWER-B. Approximately 400 kcal per person per day What foods tend to have a higher thermic response than others? A. High-carbohydrate foods B. High-protein foods C. Low-protein foods D. Low-fat foods - ANSWER-B. High-protein foods What percent of daily energy expenditure is accounted for by the process of consuming food? A. 5% B. 25% C. 10% D. 50% - ANSWER-C. 10% What are shorter sleep cycles associated with? A. Weight gain B. Weight loss C. Atrophy D. Protein synthesis - ANSWER-A. Weight gain What is the autoimmune disorder that leads to damage in the small intestine when gluten products are consumed? A. Gastroesophageal reflux disease B. Crohn's disease C. Peptic ulcer disease D. Celiac disease - ANSWER-D. Celiac disease The process of generating energy (in the form of ATP) from nutrients we consume in our diet is referred to as which of the following? A. Energy adaptation B. Energy restriction C. Energy requirement D. Energy metabolism - ANSWER-D. Energy metabolism What is the end-result of inadequate rest? A. Increased RMR B. Reduced RMR C. Increased TEF D. Reduced TEA - ANSWER-B. Reduced RMR The basic energy need of an average human being is approximately how many Calories? A. 2000 B. 1500 C. 2500 D. 3000 - ANSWER-A. 2000 Which principle describes how all energy taken into the body is accounted for; energy is either utilized directly, stored, or transformed to kinetic energy or heat? A. The fourth law of thermodynamics B. The third law of thermodynamics C. The second law of thermodynamics D. The first law of thermodynamics - ANSWER-D. The first law of thermodynamics A deficiency in which hormone is associated with an increased fat mass (central adiposity in particular), reduced insulin sensitivity, and impaired glucose tolerance? A. Testosterone B. Adrenaline C. Cortisol D. Estrogen - ANSWER-A. Testosterone Worldwide, activity levels (including occupational work, home/domestic work, leisure and exercise, and physical activity) are doing which of the following? A. Declining B. Increasing C. Remaining undocumented D. Staying the same - ANSWER-A. Declining What is the process of generating energy from the food we eat? A. .Anabolism B. Catabolism C. Hemopoiesis D. Metabolism - ANSWER-D. Metabolism [Show Less]
Palatability - ANSWER-The degree of pleasure or taste provided by a food - a highly palatable food is one that is tasty and pleasant to consume. Satiety... [Show More] - ANSWER-A feeling of fullness and satisfaction. Which of the following represents a socio-cultural food choice? A. Someone who just doesn't like the taste of garlic B. Someone who only buys their produce at a farmers' markets C. Someone who recently increased protein intake to build muscle D. Someone who eats Halal foods because they practice Islam - ANSWER-Someone who eats Halal foods because they practice Islam T/F? Satiety is achieved by the relatively simple process of the stomach recognizing that it is full of food. - ANSWER-False Which of the following hormones is responsible for feelings of satiety? A. Ghrelin B. Leptin C. Cortisol D. Testosterone - ANSWER-Leptin Which of the following is best described as the state of being in good health, especially as an actively pursued goal? A. Physical Fitness B. Disease-free C. Wellness D. Self-confidence - ANSWER-Wellness What is the leading contributor to preventable death? - ANSWER-Smoking Which of the following is the leading cause of death? A. Heart Disease B. Diabetes C. Obesity D. Breast Cancer - ANSWER-Heart Disease Which of the following terms is best defined as a disorder of structure or function in a human, animal, or plant, especially one that produces specific signs or symptoms or that affects a specific location and is not simply a direct result of physical injury? A. infection B. disease C. distress D. pathogen - ANSWER-disease The association between diet and disease is __________ - ANSWER-Well Understood Dietary habits associated with a lower incidence of cancer rates includes: - ANSWER-Eating foods high in antioxidants What is the technical term for body measurements and calculations as they refer to metrics related to human characteristics? - ANSWER-Biometrics How does basal metabolic rate change with age? - ANSWER-Decreases The best approach to eating for a population's diversity and differences includes: - ANSWER-A flexible approach A heart-healthy dietary recommendation includes which of the following? A. Reducing sodium intake B. Eating less whole grains C. Eating less fruits and vegetables D. Eating more processed meats - ANSWER-Reducing sodium intake An important factor impacting satiety includes: - ANSWER-Palatability Non-communicable diseases are also known as what? - ANSWER-Chronic Diseases Which physiological change occurs with aging? - ANSWER-slower metabolism What is true about the link between type-2 diabetes and diet? - ANSWER-They have a very strong connection What is true about portion sizes in America during the past decade? - ANSWER-They have increased dramatically. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is: - ANSWER-The energy currency of life. Total Daily Energy Expenditure (TDEE) - ANSWER-is the estimated calorie needs per day, by age, sex, and physical activity level [Show Less]
According to the SCOFF eating disorder assessment, what is the minimum number of positive answers which might indicate an eating disorder? A. 1 B. 2 C... [Show More] . 3 D. 5 - ANSWER-B. 2 Vitamin B9 - ANSWER-Folic Acid (Folate) According to the scope of practice for a Nutrition Coach, which is an example of an appropriate resource for determining daily caloric intake? a. ADA calculations based on age, gender, and activity level b. The Nutrition Coach cannot assist with daily caloric intake. c. Body type and cultural preferences d. Dietary Guidelines for Americans - ANSWER-d. Dietary Guidelines for Americans Which term describes how a body of knowledge is based on observation and experience? a. Reliable b. Repeatable c. Empirical d. Falsifiable - ANSWER-c. Empirical Scientists find that a protein supplement increases lean mass in the elderly. However, they caution that the results may not apply to other populations, like younger people. What term best describes what the scientists are referring to? a. Reliability b. External validity c. Test-retest reliability d. Selection bias - ANSWER-b. External validity Scientists gather 20 studies looking at the relationship between protein intake and lean body mass, and then they statistically analyze them together as a group. What type of study is this? a. Narrative review b. Meta-analysis c. Randomized controlled trials d. Observational research - ANSWER-b. Meta-analysis This is research in which a researcher observes ongoing behaviors to determine correlation. Prediction - ANSWER-an expected outcome generate from a hypothesis Theory - ANSWER-a hypothesis or set of hypotheses for which a large body of high-quality evidence has been accumulated Hypothesis - ANSWER-a proposed explanation for a problem or set of observations Anecdote - ANSWER-an account of a person's experience or event Uncontrolled variable - ANSWER-a variable in an experiment that a scientist makes no effort to manipulate or account for Primary Research - ANSWER-original research where scientists perform experiments and collect data Observational Research - ANSWER-research in which a researcher observes ongoing behaviors to determine correlation Randomized Control Trials - ANSWER-divided people into 2 or more groups randomly 1 - intervention to be tested 2 - control group independent variable - ANSWER-variable that is manipulated External Validity - ANSWER-the ability to generalize the results of a study Systematic Review - ANSWER-a review where scientists systematically gather all research on a topic & evaluate it based on predefined criteria and rules test-retest reliability - ANSWER-ability to get similar results when something is measured under the same conditions Reliability - ANSWER-consistency of a measure Validity - ANSWER-the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to Selection Bias - ANSWER-sample of people in the study are not a representative of larger population that scientists are looking to make inferences about Cross-Sectional studies - ANSWER-- variables in a group at a specific point in time - population based - "one-time snapshot" Case-Control Studies - ANSWER-- determine if exposure to something is associated with an outcome - scientists identify people with outcome & without - uses data that was already collected or occurs in the past Cohort Studies - ANSWER-group followed overtime Which term encompasses the weight of the scientific evidence, field observations, and individual client needs? a. Primary research b. Scientific method c. Evidence-based practice d. Science - ANSWER-c. Evidence-based practice Scientists perform a diet study in which they assign half the people to a continuous dieting group and the other half to an intermittent fasting group. Which term best describes this study design? a. Crossover b. Parallel c. Observational d. Factorial - ANSWER-b. Parallel How many dimensions of wellness are there? - ANSWER-6 dimensions What are the 6 dimensions of wellness? - ANSWER-emotional, occupational, physical, social, intellectual, and spiritual Type 2 Diabetes and diet have a ________ connection a. Strong b. Weak - ANSWER-strong Which of the following terms is best defined as a disorder of structure or function in a human, animal, or plant, especially one that produces specific signs or symptoms or that affects a specific location and is not simply a direct result of physical injury? a. Distress [Show Less]
When working with a client who has been complaining of low back pain that has been getting worse, what is the most appropriate recommendation? A. Refer ... [Show More] her to a certified personal trainer. B. Tell her to use a heating pad when the pain gets bad. C. Refer her to a chiropractor. D. Recommend use of over-the-counter anti-inflammatory medications. - ANSWER-C. Refer her to a chiropractor. With which client would it be most appropriate for the Nutrition Coach to work? A. Elite clients competing in a national Ironman B. Clients who want testing for vitamin deficiency C. Clients with inconsistent weight loss and gain D. Clients trying an elimination diet to identify food sensitivities - ANSWER-C. Clients with inconsistent weight loss and gain According to the scope of practice for a Nutrition Coach, which is an example of an appropriate resource for determining daily caloric intake? A. ADA calculations based on age, gender, and activity level B. Body type and cultural preferences C. Dietary Guidelines for Americans D. The Nutrition Coach cannot assist with daily caloric intake. - ANSWER-C. Dietary Guidelines for Americans During a regular meeting, a client is complaining of irregular gastrointestinal issues, ranging from diarrhea to constipation. What is the best course of action? A. Closely monitor his situation and re-evaluate during the next meeting. B. Evaluate his prescription medications to look for similar side effects. C. Advise him to eat more vegetables and drink more water. D. Advise him to make an appointment with his personal physician. - ANSWER-D. Advise him to make an appointment with his personal physician. A new client has just moved into the area. She states that she occasionally suffers from anxiety and panic attacks and needs to renew her prescription medications. To which healthcare professional should she be referred? A. Podiatrist B. Physiologist C. Physiotherapist D. Psychiatrist - ANSWER-D. Psychiatrist One of the roles of a Nutrition Coach is to help facilitate weight loss. Which of the following would be most appropriate to recommend for the overweight client? A. Limit carbohydrates to 35% of the diet. B. Give up bread and avoid gluten. C. Refer to a certified personal trainer for a resistance training program. D. Drink a protein shake instead of eating lunch. - ANSWER-C. Refer to a certified personal trainer for a resistance training program. Where should client files be kept to ensure client confidentiality? A. In an electronic version only B. With the client C. In the manager's office D. In a locked and secure location - ANSWER-D. In a locked and secure location A Nutrition Coach has been working with an overweight client for 6 weeks. During the most recent weight-in, they discover that she has lost 27 pounds. What is the best course of action for the Nutrition Coach? A. Congratulate her for a job well done. B. Informally question her about common eating disorder traits/habits. C. Add an additional 300-500 calories to her daily intake. D. Suggest she limit her exercise to twice per week. - ANSWER-B. Informally question her about common eating disorder traits/habits. According to the SCOFF eating disorder assessment, what is the minimum number of positive answers which might indicate an eating disorder? A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 5 - ANSWER-B. 2 A Nutrition Coach is sitting down with a new client for her initial evaluation. She noted on her Health History Questionnaire that she has never been able to maintain permanent weight loss and confides that she has made herself throw up after eating large meals. What is the best course of action? A. Refer her to a clinical psychologist. B. Tell her she has bulimia and refer her to a Certified Eating Disorder Specialist. C. Tell her she may have anorexia and refer her to a Certified Eating Disorder Specialist. D. Move forward with the client sessions but monitor her closely for any more self-induced vomiting. - ANSWER-A. Refer her to a clinical psychologist With which client would it be most appropriate for the Nutrition Coach to work? A. Overweight client who wants to train for a 10K B. Client who wants nutrition therapy for cancer prevention C. Pre-pubescent teenager who is overweight D. Client who wants accountability during a 9-week extreme calorie-restricted diet - ANSWER-A. Overweight client who wants to train for a 10K Which of the following can a Nutrition Coach provide? A. Nutritional advice and behavioral modification B. Nutritional advice and behavioral counseling C. Nutritional advice and behavioral prognosis D. Nutritional advice and behavioral prescriptions - ANSWER-A. Nutritional advice and behavioral modification To ensure the client is retaining any shared information, it is important that the content presented is perceived to be important and what other quality? A. Easy to understand B. Based on prior experience C. Delivered slowly D. Reviewed several times - ANSWER-B. Based on prior experience Any research article on diet and nutrition should be scrutinized for which of the following? A. Reliability and validity B. References and values C. Resources and volume D. Recall and verbiage - ANSWER-A. Reliability and validity To ensure the client is retaining any shared information, it is important that the content presented is highly relevant and what other quality? A. Pertinent B. Practical C. Brief D. Visual - ANSWER-B. Practical Which statement best describes the healthcare continuum? A. The health status of a client from sickness to wellness B. The many disciplines that make up the healthcare system C. The number of physician specialists that are in the healthcare system D. The type of alternative health practices that are legitimately recognized - ANSWER-B. The many disciplines that make up the healthcare system A new client is 6-weeks post-partum. She states that she has very little energy and feels sadness most of the time. What is the most appropriate course of action? A. Call 911. B. Contact her spouse to discuss options. C. Refer her to a clinical psychiatrist. D. Closely monitor her situation. - ANSWER-C. Refer her to a clinical psychiatrist. Which statement is within the scope of practice for a Nutrition Coach? A. Design a 5-day meal plan for a healthy client. B. Recommend the client discuss supplement usage and dosing with their pharmacist or physician. C. Recommend a diet that contains up to 50% protein. D. Provide general advice on a 3-day detox plan. - ANSWER-B. Recommend the client discuss supplement usage and dosing with their pharmacist or physician. Common assessments performed by a Nutrition Coach include height, weight, body composition, and what other test? A. Blood pressure B. Anthropometric measurements C. Hydrostatic weighing D. SCOFF test - ANSWER-B. Anthropometric measurements Where might a Nutrition Coach find reputable information on recent dietary guidelines? A. Popular magazines B. Government-funded agencies C. Private, for-profit supplement companies D. Celebrity blogs - ANSWER-B. Government-funded agencies Clients often confide in the Nutrition Coach. Which client conversation would be grounds for a referral to a licensed healthcare professional? A. Slow weight loss of 1/2 pound per week (0.22 kg) B. Late-night ice cream binging C. Chronic fatigue D. Occasional sleeplessness - ANSWER-C. Chronic fatigue A client confides that she is taking laxatives to help her lose weight. What is the best course of action? A. Refer her to a Registered Dietitian. B. Tell her to eat more fiber as that will help. C. Refer her to a Certified Eating Disorder Specialist. D. Tell her that regular use of laxatives are bad for her digestive tract. - ANSWER-C. Refer her to a Certified Eating Disorder Specialist. It is not uncommon for clients to confide in the Nutrition Coach. Which client conversation would be grounds for a referral to a licensed healthcare professional? A. Daily panic attacks B. Stress-eating from recent divorce C. Occasional constipation D. Self-proclaimed "sugar addict" - ANSWER-A. Daily panic attacks A client has several relatives who have recently been diagnosed with cancer. She has been reading many books about natural health and is interested in taking herbal supplements that will help prevent cancer. What is the best course of action? A. Visit a health food store together. B. Refer her to a pharmacist or her physician. C. Tell her to save her money and stay away from herbal remedies. D. Tell her to follow the guidelines of the books she read. - ANSWER-B. Refer her to a pharmacist or her physician. A Nutrition Coach is sitting down with a new client for her initial evaluation. She noted on her Health History Questionnaire that she has diabetes and she has trouble keeping her blood glucose controlled. What is the best course of action? A. Advise her to cut back on her simple carbohydrates at each meal. B. Inform her that when she loses 10% of her body weight, her blood glucose will be easier to manage. C. Refer her to a Registered Dietitian. D. Refer her to a Certified Diabetes Educator. - ANSWER-D. Refer her to a Certified Diabetes Educator. Scientists perform a diet study in which they assign half the people to a continuous dieting group and the other half to an intermittent fasting group. Which term best describes this study design? A. Observational B. Crossover C. Parallel D. Factorial - ANSWER-C. Parallel Which of the following is an example of descriptive research? A. Cohort study B. Survey C. Randomized controlled trial D. Meta-analysis - ANSWER-B. Survey Scientists perform a study comparing 1000 women with breast cancer to 1000 women without breast cancer. They gather information on the women's diets and look to see if the women diagnosed with breast cancer had more fat in their diet compared to the women who did not get cancer. Which term best describes this study? A. Cross-sectional study B. Case-control study C. Cohort study D. Survey - ANSWER-B. Case-control study Which term best describes formulation of a hypothesis, collecting data to test the hypothesis, and changing or discarding the hypothesis when the data does not support it? A. Evidence-based practice B. Primary research C. Science D. Scientific method - ANSWER-D. Scientific method Fructose has been shown in studies to have adverse effects on blood triglycerides when consumed in excess of calorie needs. However, moderate doses of fructose have been shown to have no effect. Which of the following items best describes the conclusion that should be drawn from this data? A. There is no reason to ever restrict fructose intake. B. Fructose should be limited in the diet as much as possible. C. Fructose intake poses no risk to triglycerides when consumed within energy needs, but caution is warranted if calorie intake is high. D. There is insufficient evidence to draw conclusions as to the impact of fructose intake on triglycerides. - ANSWER-C. Fructose intake poses no risk to triglycerides when consumed within energy needs, but caution is warranted if calorie intake is high. Which term refers to a proposed explanation for a set of observations? A. Randomized controlled trial B. Theory C. Hypothesis D. Prediction - ANSWER-C. Hypothesis Scientists perform a study tracking 10,000 people over a 10-year period. They look at their sugar intake at the beginning of the study and then see who develops diabetes over the study duration. Which term best describes this study? A. Survey B. Cross-sectional study C. Case-control study D. Cohort study - ANSWER-D. Cohort study Scientists gather 20 studies looking at the relationship between protein intake and lean body mass, and then they statistically analyze them together as a group. What type of study is this? A. Narrative review B. Observational research C. Randomized controlled trials D. Meta-analysis - ANSWER-D. Meta-analysis Scientists randomly assign subjects to a low or high carbohydrate group and then look at changes in body weight over 3 months. Which item represents the independent variable in this study? A. Length of study (3 months) B. Body weight C. Diet type D. Subjects - ANSWER-C. Diet type A scientist proposes that sugar is inherently fattening, independent of its calorie content. If that proposal is true, then that would mean that high-sugar diets should increase fat gain independent of their calorie content. What term describes this potential consequence? A. Theory B. Hypothesis C. Prediction D. Conclusion - ANSWER-C. Prediction Which observational study design allows scientists to hypothesize a potential causal association? A. Case study B. Cross-sectional study C. Case-control study D. Cohort study - ANSWER-D. Cohort study [Show Less]
SCOFF questionnaire - ANSWER-Basic yet reliable set of five questions that help assess whether an eating disorder exists. Do you make yourself Sick beca... [Show More] use you feel uncomfortably full? Do you worry that you have lost Control over how much you eat? Have you recently lost more than One stone (14 lbs) in a 3-month period? Do you believe yourself to be Fat when others say you are too thin? Would you say that Food dominates your life? Scientific Method - ANSWER-The process of formulating explanations about the natural world and testing those explanations with experiments and data. 1. Identify a Problem 2. Formulate a hypothesis 3. Design a study to test the hypothesis 4. Collect data 5. Discard or change the hypothesis OR continue testing Evidence-Based Practice - ANSWER-A three-pronged approach to working with clients, which consists of making decisions based on the weight of the scientific evidence, field observations, and individual client needs and preferences. Prediction - ANSWER-An expected outcome generated from a hypothesis Theory - ANSWER-A hypothesis or set of hypotheses for which a large body of high-quality evidence has been accumulated. Hierarchy of Evidence - ANSWER-1. Systematic Reviews 2. Randomized Controlled Trials 3. Observational Research 4. Peer Reviews 5. Non-Peer-Reviewed Media, including anecdotes Anecdote - ANSWER-an account of a person's experience or event Uncontrolled Variable - ANSWER-A variable in an experiment that a scientist makes no effort to manipulate or account for. Primary Research - ANSWER-Original research where scientists perform experiments and collect data - this is in contrast to secondary research where scientists analyze data that has already been collected or published elsewhere. Observational Research - ANSWER-Research in which a researcher observes ongoing behaviors to determine correlation. Correlation - ANSWER-A relationship between two or more variables. Randomized Control Trial (RCT) - ANSWER-A type of scientific study/trial where participants are randomly assigned into different groups - one or more will be the intervention to be tested and one will be the control group. Groups are randomized and a control is used in an attempt to reduce potential bias in the trial. Independent Variable - ANSWER-The variable scientists manipulate in an experiment. External Validity - ANSWER-The ability to generalize the results of a study. Systematic Review - ANSWER-A review where scientists systematically gather all research on a topic and evaluate it based on predefined criteria and rules. Meta-Analysis - ANSWER-A statistical analysis of a group of studies to assess the overall weight of the evidence. Empirical - ANSWER-Based on observation or experience. Test-Retest Reliability - ANSWER-The ability to get similar results when something is measured under the same conditions. Reliability - ANSWER-The consistency of a measure. Validity - ANSWER-The assessment of whether a tool is measuring what it is supposed to measure. Selection Bias - ANSWER-A sample of people under study is not representative of the larger population that scientists are looking to make inferences about. Retrospective - ANSWER-Describes a study that looks backward in time. Recall Bias - ANSWER-The inability to accurately remember past behaviors. Health - ANSWER-A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Homeostasis - ANSWER-The tendency toward a relatively stable equilibrium between interdependent elements, especially as maintained by physiological processes. Disease - ANSWER-A disorder of structure or function in a human, animal, or plant, especially one that produces specific signs or symptoms, affects a specific location, and is not simply a direct result of physical injury. Noncommunicable Disease - ANSWER-A noncommunicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is not caused by infectious agents; it can refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly. Communicable Disease - ANSWER-Infectious diseases caused by microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi that can be spread (directly or indirectly) from one person to another. Wellness - ANSWER-The fluid process of improving the emotional, occupational, physical, social, intellectual, and spiritual components of life, dynamically leading to a better state of health and well-being. Obese - ANSWER-A high degree of excess body fat - a BMI greater than 30. Biometrics - ANSWER-The technical term for measurements and calculations related to human physical characteristics. Satiety - ANSWER-A feeling of fullness and satisfaction. Palatability - ANSWER-The degree of pleasure or taste provided by a food - a highly palatable food is one that is tasty and pleasant to consume. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) - ANSWER-The energy currency of life. chemical compound that provides energy to drive muscle contraction, transmission of nerve impulses, and the vast majority of chemical reactions that facilitate human life. Metabolism - ANSWER-Chemical processes occurring within the body to convert food to energy. Thermic Effect of Food (TEF) - ANSWER-represents the increase in energy expenditure after consuming a meal. Thermic Effect of Activity (TEA) - ANSWER-accounts for the most variability of daily energy expenditure. Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis (NEAT) - ANSWER-energy expended for everything we do that is not sleeping, eating or exercising. Lipogenesis - ANSWER-The biological process of combining free fatty acids with glycerol to form triglycerides. Lipolysis - ANSWER-The biological process of breaking stored triglycerides into free fatty acids and glycerol. Glycogenolysis - ANSWER-The process of breaking down the glycogen molecule into its individual glucose units for entry into the energy pathways. Gluconeogenesis - ANSWER-A metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate carbon substrates such as lactate, glycerol and glucogenic amino acids. Leptin - ANSWER-A hormone produced by adipose (fat) cells that acts as a satiety factor in regulating appetite. Ghrelin - ANSWER-A hunger-arousing hormone secreted by an empty stomach. CCK (cholecystokinin) - ANSWER-hormone released in the gastrointestinal system and is responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein. NPY (neuropeptide Y) - ANSWER-neurotransmitter found in several brain areas, most notably the hypothalamus, that stimulates eating behavior and reduces metabolism, promoting positive energy balance and weight gain. Insulin - ANSWER-hormone produced by the pancreas that is released when blood glucose levels are high, promoting the uptake of glucose for fuel or storage as glycogen. Insulin helps keeps blood-sugar levels from getting too high, also referred to as hyperglycemia. Glucagon - ANSWER-hormone that is released when blood sugars decrease below a certain threshold. It stimulates the breakdown of stored glucose (glycogen) in the liver, releasing additional glucose into the bloodstream for fuel. ATP-PC system - ANSWER-energy system producing ATP during high intensity, short duration exercise. Phosphocreatine decomposes and releases large amount of energy used to construct ATP. provides energy for muscle contraction for up to 10 seconds. Anaerobic Glycolytic System - ANSWER-Glucose is used for fuel and is either blood glucose or muscle glycogen, broken down in to pyruvic acid, when there is insufficient oxygen it then is transformed into lactic acid. Energy up to 2 minutes. Aerobic Energy System - ANSWER-virtually unlimited capacity for making ATP, uses carbs, fat, protein for fuel. Slow to produce ATP. Lasts anywhere from 2 minutes to a few hours. Acid-Base Balance - ANSWER-The process of achieving, or the state of, equilibrium between acidic and alkaline molecules. Cell Signaling - ANSWER-Process of communication between cells by biological messengers to govern cellular function. Organic Molecules - ANSWER-Chemical structures containing only carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and/or nitrogen. Amino Acids - ANSWER-The organic building blocks of proteins containing both a carboxyl and an amino group. Essential Amino Acids (EAA) - ANSWER-Amino acids that are necessary for bodily functions but cannot be synthesized by the body and, therefore, must be obtained in the diet. Phenylalanine Valine Threonine Tryptophan Isoleucine Methionine Histidine Arginine* Lysine Leucine Branched Chain Amino Acid - ANSWER-The three essential amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, and valine) which are abundant in skeletal muscle tissue and named for their branch-like structure. conditionally essential amino acids - ANSWER-amino acids that are normally considered nonessential but become essential under certain circumstances when the body's need for them exceeds the ability to produce them. nonessential amino acids - ANSWER-amino acids that the body can synthesize & normally do not need to be obtained in the diet. protein synthesis - ANSWER-Process of joining amino acids with peptide bonds to form proteins. dehydration synthesis - ANSWER-The joining of two large molecules by removing one hydrogen from one molecule and a hydroxyl group (OH) from another molecule and then binding the two larger molecules together on the newly freed bonds. Peptide Bond - ANSWER-The bond between two amino acids, occurring between the carboxyl group of one and the amino group of the other. Hydrolysis - ANSWER-Breakdown of one large molecule into two smaller molecules via the donation of one hydrogen and one hydroxyl group from water to the smaller molecules, respectively. Dipeptide - ANSWER-Two amino acids bonded together tripeptide - ANSWER-3 amino acids oligopeptide - ANSWER-4-9 amino acids Polypeptide - ANSWER-chain of 10 or more amino acids Denaturation - ANSWER-changing the shape of a protein but not its primary structure. Denaturation occurs in response to many factors such as temperature, pH, and enzymes, all of which are at work during protein digestion and absorption. For most protein-dense foods, this process begins with cooking the food. Gastrin - ANSWER-A hormone released when food is ingested to stimulate release of digestive fluids. Pepsinogen - ANSWER-A proenzyme secreted by the stomach as a precursor to pepsin. Pepsin - ANSWER-An enzyme in the stomach that begins breaking peptide bonds. Duodenum - ANSWER-It is the first section of the small intestine where some digestion occurs, and it is located immediately after the stomach and leads into the jejunum. Secretin - ANSWER-A hormone that stimulates the liver and pancreas to produce bile and bicarbonate; inhibits gastrin release. Cholecystokinin - ANSWER-A hormone secreted by the duodenum that causes release of enzymes and bile. protease enzymes - ANSWER-Enzymes in the small intestine that break long peptide chains into shorter peptide chains. Peptidase - ANSWER-An enzyme that breaks down small peptides. Aminopeptidases - ANSWER-Enzymes that cleave individual amino acids from a peptide chain so they may be absorbed. Hepatic Portral Vein - ANSWER-The vein that transports blood from the spleen, stomach, pancreas, and the intestinal tract to the liver. Collagen - ANSWER-A protein formed of a triple-helix structure with great tensile strength, found primarily in skin, muscles/connective tissue, and bones. Tensile Strength - ANSWER-Ability of a material to resist breaking under tension. Elastin - ANSWER-A protein with high elasticity, found mainly in the skin. Keratin - ANSWER-A protein found in hair and nails. sodium-potassium pump - ANSWER-A protein found on the cell membrane that transports sodium and potassium to create electrochemical gradients across the membrane. Albumin - ANSWER-A protein found in the blood stream that helps draw water into the blood vessel from surrounding tissue. Hemoglobin - ANSWER-An iron-containing protein found on red blood cells, binds oxygen and other molecules for transport in the blood. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) - ANSWER-Amount of nutrient needed to meet the needs of almost all individuals in an age-sex group. Protein Quality - ANSWER-The quantity of essential amino acids found in, and the digestibility of, a protein. Complete Protein - ANSWER-A protein that contains sufficient quantities of all essential amino acids. Complementary Protein - ANSWER-Two incomplete proteins that, when comsumed together, mimic a complete protein by providing all essential amino acids. Starches - ANSWER-Grains, corn, rice barley, vegetables, beans, and wheat Sugars - ANSWER-Sweets (candy), sugar (cane sugar), fruit, and milk Monosaccharides - ANSWER-They define the single sugar units of glucose, fructose, and galactose and represent the absorbable forms of carbohydrates for the body. Disaccharides - ANSWER-They define pairs of sugar units. The three nutritionally important ones to humans are sucrose, maltose, and lactose. Polysaccharides - ANSWER-They define glucose chains longer than 10 units in length, but they can be as large as several thousand glucose units in length. [Show Less]
a CNC can provide clients non-medical nutrition information & behavior change - ANSWER-true every region requires that a nutrition coach work under the ... [Show More] supervision of a registered dietitian - ANSWER-false the CNC can provide specific meal plans for clients - ANSWER-false the CNC can recommend specific supplements - ANSWER-false the CNC can offer advice on eating behaviors/macronutrients that are known to reduce risk of disease or slow disease progression - ANSWER-true a thorough assessment can help rule out any client who has issues beyond the scope of practice for the CNC - ANSWER-true the SCOFF questionnaire is a reliable assessment tool used to detect which of the following conditions? - ANSWER-eating disorder an unexplained surge in athletic performance is a reason for the CNC to refer their client to a registered dietitian - ANSWER-false a client who confides of suicidal thoughts should be referred to a psychologist - ANSWER-true it is appropriate for the CNC to recommend an over the counter antacid when a client complains about recent episodes of heart burn - ANSWER-false when it comes to client confidentiality, all personal information should be kept in a locked/secure area - ANSWER-true if the CNC intends to work as an employee in a private health club, its important to consult with an attorney & accountant to ensure proper business practices - ANSWER-true when working with a client who has been complaining of low back pain that has been getting worse, what is the most appropriate recommendation - ANSWER-refer to a chiropractor common assessments performed by a CNC include height, weight, body composition & what other test? - ANSWER-anthropometric measurements where might a CNC find reputable information on recent dietary guidelines? - ANSWER-government funded agencies according to the SCOFF eating disorder assessment, what is the minimum number of positive answers which might indicate an eating disorder? - ANSWER-2 a new client is 6 weeks post-partum. she states that she has very little energy & feels sadness most of the time. what is the most appropriate course of action? - ANSWER-refer her to a clinical psychiatrist which of the following can a CNC provide - ANSWER-nutritional advice & behavioral modification a CNC has been working with an overweight client for 6 weeks. during the most recent weight-in, they discover she lost 27 lbs. what is the best course of action? - ANSWER-informally question her about common eating disorder traits/habits which statement is within the scope of practice for a CNC? - ANSWER-recommend the client discuss supplement usage & dosing with their pharmacist or physician a client confides that she is taking laxatives to help her lose weight. what is the best course of action? - ANSWER-refer to a certified eating disorder specialist where should client files be kept to ensure client confidentiality? - ANSWER-in a locked & secure location to ensure the client is retaining any shared information, its important that the content presented is highly relevant and what other quality? - ANSWER-practical to ensure the client is retaining any shared information, its important the content presented is perceived to be important and what other quality? - ANSWER-based on prior experience with which client would it be most appropriate for the CNC to work? - ANSWER-overweight client who wants to train for a 10k a new client just moved into the area. she states she occasionally suffers from anxiety & panic attacks and needs to renew her prescription medication. which professional should you refer? - ANSWER-psychiatrist according to the scope of practice for a CNC, which is an example of an appropriate resource for determining daily caloric intake? - ANSWER-dietary guidelines for americans which statement best describes the healthcare continuum? - ANSWER-the many disciplines that make up the healthcare system with which client would it be most appropriate for the CNC.to work? - ANSWER-clients with inconsistent weight loss and weight gain one of the roles of a CNC is to help facilitate weight loss. which of the following would be most appropriate to recommend for the overweight client? - ANSWER-refer to a CPT for a resistance training program a CNC is sitting down with a new client for her initial evaluation. she noted on her HHQ that she has diabetes and she has trouble keeping her blood glucose controlled. what is the best course of action? - ANSWER-refer her to a certified diabetes educator any research article on diet and nutrition should be scrutinized for which of the following? - ANSWER-reliability and validity it is not uncommon for clients to confide in the CNC. which client conversation would be grounds for a referral to a licensed healthcare professional? - ANSWER-daily panic attacks during a regular meeting, a client is complaining of irregular gastrointestinal issues ranging from diarrhea to constipation. what is the best course of action? - ANSWER-advise him to make an appointment with his personal physician identify the 3 components of evidence based practice - ANSWER-weight of evidence, field observations, individual client needs/preferences order the steps of the scientific method - ANSWER-identify a problem, form a hypothesis, design a study/test method, collect data/synthesize/interpret, discard unsupported hypothesis/continue testing scientists identify what is most likely to be true by demonstrating what is not true - ANSWER-true a scientific theory is just a guess - ANSWER-false which of the following ranks highest in terms of quality - ANSWER-randomized control trials (RCTs) which of the following best describes an empirical scientific approach? - ANSWER-controlled observation which of the following represents a weakness of observational studies? - ANSWER-correlation does not equal causation which of the following best represents a weakness of interventional designs? - ANSWER-small number of subjects which of the following is the best source of information? - ANSWER-peer reviewed scientific journals scientific evidence is fixed and immutable - ANSWER-false the uncertainty of science is a strength, as nothing is ever 100% certain - ANSWER-true numerous studies, including genetic studies, RCTs on lipid lowering medications & observational studies point to LDL having a casual role in heart disease. which term best describes the concept that LDL plays a casual role in heart disease? - ANSWER-theory which term describes the phenomena when a group doesn't represent the population a scientist is intending to study? - ANSWER-selection bias the behavioral risk factor surveillance system (BRFSS) involves collecting health-related information via telephone interview across the US. which term best describes this research? - ANSWER-survey which term best describes formulation of a hypothesis, collecting data to test the hypothesis & changing/discarding the hypothesis when the data does not support it? - ANSWER-scientific method studies show that diet A causes more weight loss than diet B. a client is able to better adhere to diet B. which item represents the best option for this client? - ANSWER-diet B scientists take 5000 people & have them fill out a questionnaire on their dairy intake. they then compare cancer rates between people with high & low intakes. what type of study is this? - ANSWER-observational which of the following represents a critical evaluation of a study by other scientists? - ANSWER-peer review Scientists perform a study looking at the effects of caffeine on vertical jump performance. On one day, they give all the subjects caffeine followed by vertical jump tests. Two weeks later, they give all the subjects a placebo followed by the same vertical jump tests. Which term best describes this study design? - ANSWER-crossover A scientist proposes that sugar is inherently fattening, and performs a study comparing a high-sugar diet to a low-sugar diet with equal calories. He finds that fat gain was the same between the diets. Which term describes how this study effects the initial proposal? - ANSWER-falsification Which term refers to the ability to get similar results when something is measured under the same conditions? - ANSWER-test re-test reliability Scientists perform a study comparing 1000 women with breast cancer to 1000 women without breast cancer. They gather information on the women's diets and look to see if the women diagnosed with breast cancer had more fat in their diet compared to the women who did not get cancer. Which term best describes this study? - ANSWER-case-control study Which term describes how a body of knowledge is based on observation and experience? - ANSWER-empirical Which term describes a variable in an experiment for which a scientist takes no steps to account for? - ANSWER-uncontrolled variable Scientists randomly assign subjects to a low or high carbohydrate group and then look at changes in body weight over 3 months. Which item represents the independent variable in this study? - ANSWER-diet type Which observational study design allows scientists to hypothesize a potential causal association? - ANSWER-cohort study a scientist hypothesizes that a supplement will increase resistance training performance. a study is carried out & the results don't support the hypothesis. multiple studies by independent labs also fail to support it. what is the appropriate response? - ANSWER-the predictions have been falsified & hypothesis is discarded a scientist hypothesizes a supplement will improve fat loss by suppressing appetite. which item represents a prediction generated by this hypothesis? - ANSWER-subjects will eat less after taking supplement which term refers to a proposed explanation for observations? - ANSWER-hypothesis 7 studies show diet A lowers cholesterol more than diet B. 3 studies show no difference. assuming all studies are equivalent in quality, which item best describes this situation? - ANSWER-weight of evidence suggests A is more effective than B, but more information is needed scientists perform a diet study in which they assign half the people to a continuous dieting group & the other half to an intermittent fasting group. which describes this study design? - ANSWER-parallel a scientists observes that people tend to perform better in a weight training session after consuming a pre-workout supplement. the scientist proposes the caffeine increases [Show Less]
Docmerit is a great platform to get and share study resources, especially the resource contributed by past students and who have done similar courses.
I find Docmerit to be authentic, easy to use and a community with quality notes and study tips. Now is my chance to help others.
University Of Arizona
One of the most useful resource available is 24/7 access to study guides and notes. It helped me a lot to clear my final semester exams.
Docmerit is super useful, because you study and make money at the same time! You even benefit from summaries made a couple of years ago.