SCOFF questionnaire - ANSWER-Basic yet reliable set of five questions that help assess whether an eating disorder exists.
Do you make yourself Sick beca... [Show More] use you feel uncomfortably full?
Do you worry that you have lost Control over how much you eat?
Have you recently lost more than One stone (14 lbs) in a 3-month period?
Do you believe yourself to be Fat when others say you are too thin?
Would you say that Food dominates your life?
Scientific Method - ANSWER-The process of formulating explanations about the natural world and testing those explanations with experiments and data.
1. Identify a Problem
2. Formulate a hypothesis
3. Design a study to test the hypothesis
4. Collect data
5. Discard or change the hypothesis OR continue testing
Evidence-Based Practice - ANSWER-A three-pronged approach to working with clients, which consists of making decisions based on the weight of the scientific evidence, field observations, and individual client needs and preferences.
Prediction - ANSWER-An expected outcome generated from a hypothesis
Theory - ANSWER-A hypothesis or set of hypotheses for which a large body of high-quality evidence has been accumulated.
Hierarchy of Evidence - ANSWER-1. Systematic Reviews
2. Randomized Controlled Trials
3. Observational Research
4. Peer Reviews
5. Non-Peer-Reviewed Media, including anecdotes
Anecdote - ANSWER-an account of a person's experience or event
Uncontrolled Variable - ANSWER-A variable in an experiment that a scientist makes no effort to manipulate or account for.
Primary Research - ANSWER-Original research where scientists perform experiments and collect data - this is in contrast to secondary research where scientists analyze data that has already been collected or published elsewhere.
Observational Research - ANSWER-Research in which a researcher observes ongoing behaviors to determine correlation.
Correlation - ANSWER-A relationship between two or more variables.
Randomized Control Trial (RCT) - ANSWER-A type of scientific study/trial where participants are randomly assigned into different groups - one or more will be the intervention to be tested and one will be the control group. Groups are randomized and a control is used in an attempt to reduce potential bias in the trial.
Independent Variable - ANSWER-The variable scientists manipulate in an experiment.
External Validity - ANSWER-The ability to generalize the results of a study.
Systematic Review - ANSWER-A review where scientists systematically gather all research on a topic and evaluate it based on predefined criteria and rules.
Meta-Analysis - ANSWER-A statistical analysis of a group of studies to assess the overall weight of the evidence.
Empirical - ANSWER-Based on observation or experience.
Test-Retest Reliability - ANSWER-The ability to get similar results when something is measured under the same conditions.
Reliability - ANSWER-The consistency of a measure.
Validity - ANSWER-The assessment of whether a tool is measuring what it is supposed to measure.
Selection Bias - ANSWER-A sample of people under study is not representative of the larger population that scientists are looking to make inferences about.
Retrospective - ANSWER-Describes a study that looks backward in time.
Recall Bias - ANSWER-The inability to accurately remember past behaviors.
Health - ANSWER-A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
Homeostasis - ANSWER-The tendency toward a relatively stable equilibrium between interdependent elements, especially as maintained by physiological processes.
Disease - ANSWER-A disorder of structure or function in a human, animal, or plant, especially one that produces specific signs or symptoms, affects a specific location, and is not simply a direct result of physical injury.
Noncommunicable Disease - ANSWER-A noncommunicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is not caused by infectious agents; it can refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly.
Communicable Disease - ANSWER-Infectious diseases caused by microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi that can be spread (directly or indirectly) from one person to another.
Wellness - ANSWER-The fluid process of improving the emotional, occupational, physical, social, intellectual, and spiritual components of life, dynamically leading to a better state of health and well-being.
Obese - ANSWER-A high degree of excess body fat - a BMI greater than 30.
Biometrics - ANSWER-The technical term for measurements and calculations related to human physical characteristics.
Satiety - ANSWER-A feeling of fullness and satisfaction.
Palatability - ANSWER-The degree of pleasure or taste provided by a food - a highly palatable food is one that is tasty and pleasant to consume.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) - ANSWER-The energy currency of life.
chemical compound that provides energy to drive muscle contraction, transmission of nerve impulses, and the vast majority of chemical reactions that facilitate human life.
Metabolism - ANSWER-Chemical processes occurring within the body to convert food to energy.
Thermic Effect of Food (TEF) - ANSWER-represents the increase in energy expenditure after consuming a meal.
Thermic Effect of Activity (TEA) - ANSWER-accounts for the most variability of daily energy expenditure.
Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis (NEAT) - ANSWER-energy expended for everything we do that is not sleeping, eating or exercising.
Lipogenesis - ANSWER-The biological process of combining free fatty acids with glycerol to form triglycerides.
Lipolysis - ANSWER-The biological process of breaking stored triglycerides into free fatty acids and glycerol.
Glycogenolysis - ANSWER-The process of breaking down the glycogen molecule into its individual glucose units for entry into the energy pathways.
Gluconeogenesis - ANSWER-A metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate carbon substrates such as lactate, glycerol and glucogenic amino acids.
Leptin - ANSWER-A hormone produced by adipose (fat) cells that acts as a satiety factor in regulating appetite.
Ghrelin - ANSWER-A hunger-arousing hormone secreted by an empty stomach.
CCK (cholecystokinin) - ANSWER-hormone released in the gastrointestinal system and is responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein.
NPY (neuropeptide Y) - ANSWER-neurotransmitter found in several brain areas, most notably the hypothalamus, that stimulates eating behavior and reduces metabolism, promoting positive energy balance and weight gain.
Insulin - ANSWER-hormone produced by the pancreas that is released when blood glucose levels are high, promoting the uptake of glucose for fuel or storage as glycogen. Insulin helps keeps blood-sugar levels from getting too high, also referred to as hyperglycemia.
Glucagon - ANSWER-hormone that is released when blood sugars decrease below a certain threshold. It stimulates the breakdown of stored glucose (glycogen) in the liver, releasing additional glucose into the bloodstream for fuel.
ATP-PC system - ANSWER-energy system producing ATP during high intensity, short duration exercise. Phosphocreatine decomposes and releases large amount of energy used to construct ATP. provides energy for muscle contraction for up to 10 seconds.
Anaerobic Glycolytic System - ANSWER-Glucose is used for fuel and is either blood glucose or muscle glycogen, broken down in to pyruvic acid, when there is insufficient oxygen it then is transformed into lactic acid. Energy up to 2 minutes.
Aerobic Energy System - ANSWER-virtually unlimited capacity for making ATP, uses carbs, fat, protein for fuel. Slow to produce ATP. Lasts anywhere from 2 minutes to a few hours.
Acid-Base Balance - ANSWER-The process of achieving, or the state of, equilibrium between acidic and alkaline molecules.
Cell Signaling - ANSWER-Process of communication between cells by biological messengers to govern cellular function.
Organic Molecules - ANSWER-Chemical structures containing only carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and/or nitrogen.
Amino Acids - ANSWER-The organic building blocks of proteins containing both a carboxyl and an amino group.
Essential Amino Acids (EAA) - ANSWER-Amino acids that are necessary for bodily functions but cannot be synthesized by the body and, therefore, must be obtained in the diet.
Branched Chain Amino Acid - ANSWER-The three essential amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, and valine) which are abundant in skeletal muscle tissue and named for their branch-like structure.
conditionally essential amino acids - ANSWER-amino acids that are normally considered nonessential but become essential under certain circumstances when the body's need for them exceeds the ability to produce them.
nonessential amino acids - ANSWER-amino acids that the body can synthesize & normally do not need to be obtained in the diet.
protein synthesis - ANSWER-Process of joining amino acids with peptide bonds to form proteins.
dehydration synthesis - ANSWER-The joining of two large molecules by removing one hydrogen from one molecule and a hydroxyl group (OH) from another molecule and then binding the two larger molecules together on the newly freed bonds.
Peptide Bond - ANSWER-The bond between two amino acids, occurring between the carboxyl group of one and the amino group of the other.
Hydrolysis - ANSWER-Breakdown of one large molecule into two smaller molecules via the donation of one hydrogen and one hydroxyl group from water to the smaller molecules, respectively.
Dipeptide - ANSWER-Two amino acids bonded together
tripeptide - ANSWER-3 amino acids
oligopeptide - ANSWER-4-9 amino acids
Polypeptide - ANSWER-chain of 10 or more amino acids
Denaturation - ANSWER-changing the shape of a protein but not its primary structure.
Denaturation occurs in response to many factors such as temperature, pH, and enzymes, all of which are at work during protein digestion and absorption.
For most protein-dense foods, this process begins with cooking the food.
Gastrin - ANSWER-A hormone released when food is ingested to stimulate release of digestive fluids.
Pepsinogen - ANSWER-A proenzyme secreted by the stomach as a precursor to pepsin.
Pepsin - ANSWER-An enzyme in the stomach that begins breaking peptide bonds.
Duodenum - ANSWER-It is the first section of the small intestine where some digestion occurs, and it is located immediately after the stomach and leads into the jejunum.
Secretin - ANSWER-A hormone that stimulates the liver and pancreas to produce bile and bicarbonate; inhibits gastrin release.
Cholecystokinin - ANSWER-A hormone secreted by the duodenum that causes release of enzymes and bile.
protease enzymes - ANSWER-Enzymes in the small intestine that break long peptide chains into shorter peptide chains.
Peptidase - ANSWER-An enzyme that breaks down small peptides.
Aminopeptidases - ANSWER-Enzymes that cleave individual amino acids from a peptide chain so they may be absorbed.
Hepatic Portral Vein - ANSWER-The vein that transports blood from the spleen, stomach, pancreas, and the intestinal tract to the liver.
Collagen - ANSWER-A protein formed of a triple-helix structure with great tensile strength, found primarily in skin, muscles/connective tissue, and bones.
Tensile Strength - ANSWER-Ability of a material to resist breaking under tension.
Elastin - ANSWER-A protein with high elasticity, found mainly in the skin.
Keratin - ANSWER-A protein found in hair and nails.
sodium-potassium pump - ANSWER-A protein found on the cell membrane that transports sodium and potassium to create electrochemical gradients across the membrane.
Albumin - ANSWER-A protein found in the blood stream that helps draw water into the blood vessel from surrounding tissue.
Hemoglobin - ANSWER-An iron-containing protein found on red blood cells, binds oxygen and other molecules for transport in the blood.
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) - ANSWER-Amount of nutrient needed to meet the needs of almost all individuals in an age-sex group.
Protein Quality - ANSWER-The quantity of essential amino acids found in, and the digestibility of, a protein.
Complete Protein - ANSWER-A protein that contains sufficient quantities of all essential amino acids.
Complementary Protein - ANSWER-Two incomplete proteins that, when comsumed together, mimic a complete protein by providing all essential amino acids.
Starches - ANSWER-Grains, corn, rice barley, vegetables, beans, and wheat
Sugars - ANSWER-Sweets (candy), sugar (cane sugar), fruit, and milk
Monosaccharides - ANSWER-They define the single sugar units of glucose, fructose, and galactose and represent the absorbable forms of carbohydrates for the body.
Disaccharides - ANSWER-They define pairs of sugar units. The three nutritionally important ones to humans are sucrose, maltose, and lactose.
Polysaccharides - ANSWER-They define glucose chains longer than 10 units in length, but they can be as large as several thousand glucose units in length. [Show Less]