When we think of volcanoes, eruptions, lava, and smoke- filled air come to mind—all
occurring on land. Most people are surprised to learn about the prev... [Show More] alence of
underwater volcanoes on our planet. Because the lava and smoke spilling out of an
active, underwater volcano is contained by the ocean, people generally do not take note
of these eruptions. However, the largest underwater volcanoes are capable of creating
huge tidal waves, threatening coastal communities.
(The main idea of the passage is that...)
A. traditional volcanoes and underwater volcanoes are similar
B. the lava and smoke from an underwater volcano is contained by the sea
C. most tidal waves are caused by underwater volcanoes
D. underwater volcanoes receive little attention but can be dangerous - Choice (D) is
correct. The main idea of the passage is that underwater volcanoes receive little
attention but can be dangerous. The author explains that while "people generally do not
note" of underwater eruptions because "the lava and smoke . . . is contained by the
ocean," such eruptions are dangerous because they are "capable of creating huge tidal
waves, threatening coastal communities." Choice (A) is incorrect because the passage
highlights differences, not similarities, between traditional and underwater volcanoes.
Choice (B) is incorrect because although the passage notes that the lava and smoke
from underwater volcanoes is contained by the sea, that fact is not the main idea; it
supports the larger point about what people notice. Choice (C) is incorrect because the
passage does not indicate that most tidal waves are caused by underwater eruptions.
In 2010, talk show host Oprah Winfrey and novelist Jonathan Franzen kissed and made
up after a nine-year feud. In 2001, Franzen was disinvited from appearing on Winfrey's
TV show to pitch his novel The Corrections after he made it clear that he was unhappy
about the book's being chosen for the Oprah Book Club. Describing his work as
"in the high-art literary tradition," Franzen said he didn't want to be associated with the
Club, which he accused of occasionally choosing "schmaltzy, one-dimensional" novels.
But Winfrey is apparently able to forgive and forget: she chose Franzen's next novel,
Freedom, for her book club and said of it, "Now you haven't heard me say this word
often, but this book is a masterpiece."
(The passage implies that Franzen's criticism of the Oprah Book Club was motivated
D. ignorance - Choice (A) is correct. The author of the passage states that Franzen
refers to his own work as belonging to a "high-art literary tradition" and to Oprah's book
club choices as being "schmaltzy," or overly sentimental, and "one-dimensional." These
details suggest that Franzen felt that his own book is of higher quality than other books
chosen for the book club. In other words, Franzen's criticism of the Oprah Book Club
was motivated by his pride, or his sense of self-importance. Choices (B) and (C) are
incorrect because there is no indication in the passage that Franzen felt any anger or
was trying to be insensitive. Choice (D) is incorrect because there is no indication that
Franzen's comments about Oprah's choices were ignorant or uninformed.
The main authors of The Declaration of Independence and the Constitution are usually
thought of as America's "Founding Fathers." Other, less known personages also
deserve the title, however, and Noah Webster was one
of these. Through his writings, which include the still- influential dictionary that bears his
name, Webster sought to legitimize an "American English" that was independent of
British spelling and pronunciation. For instance, Webster removed the "u" from "colour,"
creating the distinct American version of the word.
(What is the main purpose of this passage?...)
A. To praise the Founding Fathers
B. To present information about an important American
C. To define and explain "American English"
D. To distinguish American dictionaries from British
dictionaries - Choice (B) is correct. The author discusses Noah Webster and the idea
that he deserves the title
of Founding Father. The author clearly considers Webster important, citing his "stillinfluential dictionary" and his attempt to "legitimize an 'American English.'" Choice (A) is
incorrect because although the author mentions that the Founding Fathers authored
certain documents, he or she offers no specific praise of the Founding Fathers. Choices
(C) and (D) are incorrect; although
the author mentions Webster's attempt "to legitimize an 'American English'" and to
create an American English dictionary, neither of these points is the main focus of the
If you are committed to healthy, green living and want to reduce your environmental
footprint, you might consider expanding your daily diet to include bugs. Supporters of
the edible insect initiative rightfully argue that farming insects has a much lower
environmental impact than does raising livestock since bugs are easier to harvest and
require a fraction of the water and land space that cattle need. Indeed, the high-protein,
low-fat health benefits of bug-eating have long been known. For hundreds of years,
crickets, silkworms and even tarantulas have been served roasted, stewed and fried at
the dinner tables of many cultures.
(Which words best describe the author's attitude toward the "edible insect initiative"?...)
A. awe and amazement
B. interest and support
C. disgust and distaste
D. fear and apprehension - Choice (B) is correct. The author of the passage is
interested in and supportive of the edible insect initiative. He or she addresses the
reader directly, urging, "you might consider expanding your daily diet to include bugs." [Show Less]