Sophia - Ancient Greek Philosophers - Unit 1 Milestone 1.
1. Which of the following statements about the metaphysical tenets of Plato’s Doctrine of the ... [Show More] Forms is FALSE?
• There is a cause and effect relationship between Forms and their earthly counterparts.
• The Forms exist in an intellectual realm that is fixed and never-ending.
• Perfection in the Forms does not exist in Platonic Heaven.
• Forms must exist in order for knowledge to be possible. 2
2. Which of the following statements about the Crito is FALSE?
• Following the advice of experts is more ethical than appealing the majority.
• Socrates argued that civil disobedience was an obligation for intellectuals and philosophers.
• Athens performed its end of the Social Contract; Socrates was required to do the same.
• The Social Contract made it unethical for Socrates to escape his punishment. 3
3. Karen believes that she has a responsibility to protect the environment.
Choose the statement that is consistent with Karen's belief.
• “I go to the farmer’s market if I have time to do so on the weekends.”
• "I only drive my car to work when it is raining or too cold outside.”
• “I serve meat to my family only on holidays and special occasions.”
• “I have eliminated all plastic from my day-to-day life.” 4
4. What kind of a thing is an orchid? It is a type of flower. What distinguishes an orchid from other flowers? The female and male parts of an orchid are fused together.
According to Aristotle, answering both of these questions reveals the __________ of an orchid.
5. In the Phaedo, Socrates makes all of the following claims, EXCEPT:
• Without a body to impede his or her progress, the philosopher may see things as they truly are.
• Valuing what is right more than life is illogical and meaningless.
• The philosopher is concerned with the soul and not with the body.
• Sensory distractions hinder the soul's pursuit of truth and knowledge.
6. Choose the example that best demonstrates a central tenet of Stoicism.
• Bob is such a rabid Cubs fan that it isn’t fun to watch a baseball game with him.
• Mr. Donovan insists that he begin each morning with pastry and a cup of sweet tea.
• Carlene is devastated when her outdoor party is interrupted by a thunderstorm.
• Stephanie is a good nurse because she is skillful and always remains composed.
7. Choose the question that distinguishes the focus of Socrates’ philosophical inquiry from that of the philosophers who preceded him.
• What is knowledge?
• What is the nature of the universe?
• What is the role of the gods?
• What is real?
8. In the Apology, Socrates states that a good person does what he knows to be right despite __________.
• negative personal consequences
• the wisdom of the gods
• risking fame and fortune
• the laws of man
9. Which branch of philosophy examines the ultimate nature of reality?
• Natural philosophy
10. Choose the statement that both Plato and Aristotle would agree is true.
• “The ideals of Beauty and Truth are not of this world.”
• “The physical sciences are a source of eternal knowledge."
• “Ideals are similar to mathematical objects or entities.”
• “A human being is 'human' because he or she reflects the Form of a Human.”
11. Which of the following is the most important tenet of Stoicism?
• To resist playing a role
• To let go of what we cannot control
• To feed our desires
• To understand that reality is either good or bad
12. Which of the following statements about Aristotle's metaphysics is FALSE?
• Aristotle defined a particular as “a this” to distinguish it from a universal.
• The first philosophy for Aristotle was ontology, which examines the nature of being.
• For Aristotle, existence requires matter and form— not one or the other, but both.
• Aristotle's ultimate conclusion was that the nature of reality was change.
13. The value of the Socratic Method lies in showing students how to __________ on their own, rather than having it dictated to them.
• explain rhetoric
• create an argument
• evaluate an opinion
• gain knowledge
14. All teachers are robots.
Cynthia is a teacher.
Therefore, Cynthia is a robot.
Evaluate the argument and select the option that describes it.
• Inductive, weak, uncogent
• Deductive, invalid, sound
• Inductive, strong, cogent
• Deductive, valid, unsound
15. “I view the world as a mathematical entity of perfect harmony.”
Which ancient philosopher would most likely have made this statement?
16. Choose the statement that describes a central theme of Parmenidean metaphysics.
• The opinions of mortals are universally reliable.
• The world is composed of linked opposites.
• Mortal and divine knowledge can be joined.
• The universe consists of one, unchanging entity.
17. Roland is a compassionate person. He sometimes gives money that he needs for himself to strangers who beg on the street.
According to Aristotle’s ethics, Roland should do which of the following in order to cultivate the virtue of compassion?
• Find other ways to help people besides giving his money away.
• Spend time with compassionate people in order to learn the essence of compassion.
• Stop giving away his money so that he can focus on taking care of himself.
• Find middle ground between being too compassionate and not compassionate enough.
18. Select the statement that would most likely have been made by Aristotle.
• “New things do not come into existence; rather, things change their organization.”
• “The world is unchanging and eternal, which conflicts with the illusion that life is neither.”
• “What is true is always true, independent of wisdom, language, or knowledge.”
• “We must begin with the world we encounter every day, rather than with the abstraction of metaphysics.”
19. Being a good parent is a __________ condition for having a child.
Apply conceptual analysis to this statement and choose the answer that correctly describes the relationship.
• sufficient, not necessary
• necessary, not sufficient
• both necessary and sufficient
• neither necessary nor sufficient
20. Which of the following statements about the atomistic worldview is FALSE?
• The philosophical worldview of the early Greek atomists had great influence on philosophical, scientific, and religious thinking, but only for a brief period of time.
• Philosophical atoms of different shapes and consistencies are the fundamental components of reality.
• Everything in the universe exists as a single atom, or a collection of atoms.
• The worldview of philosophical atomists, with some revisions, has been adopted by contemporary science.
21. In the passage below, Socrates imagines a dialogue between himself and Athens, personified as the laws:
“Then the laws will say: ‘Consider, Socrates, if we are speaking truly that in your present attempt you are going to do us an injury. For, having brought you into the world, and nurtured and educated you, and given you and every other citizen a share in every good which we had to give, we further proclaim to any Athenian by the liberty which we allow him, that if he does not like us when he has become of age and has seen the ways of the city, and made our acquaintance, he may go where he pleases and take his goods with him. None of us laws will forbid him or interfere with him. Anyone who does not like us and the city, and who wants to emigrate to a colony or to any other city, may go where he likes, retaining his property. But he who has experience of the manner in which we order justice and administer the state, and still remains, has entered into an implied contract that he will do as we command him.’”
Reconstruct the argument from this text and choose the sentence that accurately states the main premise of Socrates’ argument.
• Socrates believes that taking advantage of opportunities to save his life would be giving in to his enemies, and approving his own destruction.
• An unjust act is obvious, just as a just act is obvious, but unless we know the true essence of justice, we cannot judge others.
• By neither leaving Athens nor attempting to change its laws, Socrates consented to the terms of a Social Contract with Athens.
• Our senses do not provide us with truth, so the soul must attain truth without the distraction and deception caused by bodily experiences.
22. In Plato's view, justified true beliefs must be related to his metaphysical notion of __________, which he called the Forms.
23. All of the following are central tenets of Aristotle’s ethics, EXCEPT:
• Any virtue can become a vice.
• Knowing the essence of a thing can justify a belief.
• An action is evaluated based on how it informs character.
• Something is good when it excels at its function.
24. According to Plato's doctrine of Forms, what makes a rose a rose is that it __________.
• imitates the genuine Form of Rose
• serves the purpose of a rose
• reveals what is true about all roses
• changes the Form of Rose
25. Heraclitus' Logos is part of his __________.
• mathematics [Show Less]