PSY550 Mid-Term Exam: Research Methods
Directions: This is an open-book and open-notes exam. You have 2 hours to complete the exam. The test is worth 10... [Show More] 0 points; each item is worth 10 points.
1. Define and describe the six steps of the scientific method. Give an example of each step. Answer:
Identify a problem- to investigate or a problem that can be resolved by making observations. For example, placing candies closer to a participant increases the number of candies they eat (Pivitera, 2017).
Develop a research plan by testing the hypothesis. Define a variable that can change or vary by observation and how it can be measured. For example, number of candies eaten when placed within arm’s reach compared to candies eaten when placed 10 feet away.
Conduct the study by executing the plan in step 2. For example, recording and observe how many pieces of candy a person eats when at arm’s length then again 10 feet away.
Analyze and evaluate the data. Report the numbers observed when the study was conducted and present them in charts, graphs and tables and determine the difference.
Communicate the results by sharing the results of the study. Results can be shared orally or through posters.
Generate more new ideas by publishing your work so others can review your findings and conduct further studies. Explain if your hypothesis was supported or not. If the hypothesis was not supported test another hypothesis (Pivitera, 2017).
2. When is it appropriate for a researcher to use deception in a study? When is it not appropriate? How can the negative effects of deception be minimized?
Deception maybe necessary if use of non-deceptive alternatives is not feasible and may be used if there is no reasonable expectation for causing physical pain or sever emotional distress to the participant as a result of the deception. Participants must be informed of deception immediately at the end of the study. In order to minimize negative effects of deception, researchers must debrief participants and inform them of the true nature of the study (Pivitera, 2017).
3. Use Stevens’ model of measurement scales to answer these questions:
a) What type of scale is used when the variable is social class? Explain.
b) What type of scale is used when the variable studied is a Top 40 list of popular songs? Explain.
c) What type of scale is used when the variable studied is intelligence scores (for example, on the Stanford-Binet-R)? Explain [Show Less]