NSG 280 Comprehension Final Study Guide. A+ RATED.Comprehension Final
1. Retinal Detachment: sudden and painless, bright flashes of light ... [Show More] (photopia) or floating dark spots in the affecting eye, “curtain”; lay flat on affected side
2. Cataract: opaque w/a painless loss of transparency
3. Glaucoma: increased intraocular pressure (fluid pressure within the eye)
Primary open-angle glaucoma: common; affects both eyes, IOP gradually increases.
• Early SX- foggy vision, reduced accommodation, mild aching in the eyes, or HA, frequent changes in glasses RX.
• Late SX- irreversible damage, halos around lights, loss of peripheral vision, decreased vision that does not improve w/glasses
Primary angle-closure glaucoma: less common; sudden onset, EMERGENCY!!!
4. Retinal hole: break in the retina. Caused by trauma and/or aging.
5. Retinal tear: jagged and irregularly shaped break in the retina
6. Macular Degeneration: affects both eyes! S/S: blurred vision, central vision loss, mild burning (normal)
Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate): bed side commode, monitor k+ because it’s elevated. PT is a falls risk! Call light should be within reach/implement falls risk precautions!
ADHD: TX w/methylphenidate!
Alcohol Withdrawal: S/S DT’s. TX w/Ativan. S/E drowsiness, respiratory depression (normal RR 12-20). If RR <10, TX w/Ramazicon (reverses Ativan)
1. Tonic: stiffening or rigidity of the muscles, particularly of the arms/legs, immediate loss of consciousness. Abrupt increase in muscle tone, loss of LOC, autonomic changes lasting from 30 seconds to several minutes.
2. Clonic: rhythmic jerking of all extremities. PT may bite his or her tongue and may become incontinent or urine or feces. Fatigue, acute confusion, lethargy may last an hour after seizure. Causes muscle contractions and relaxation.
3. Absence seizure: common in children and runs in families. Brief (often just seconds) periods of loss of consciousness and blank staring as though the person is daydreaming. PT’s eyes may flutter and automatisms (involuntary behavior) such as lip smacking and picking at clothes may occur.
4. Myoclonic seizure: brief jerking or stiffening of the extremities that may occur singly or in groups last for a few seconds, contractions may be symmetric (both sides) or asymmetric (one side).
5. Atonic (akinetic) seizure: sudden loss of muscle tone, lasting for seconds, followed by postictal (after the seizure) confusion. May cause patient to fall and tends to be drug resistant. Risk for injuries or falls.
6. Partial Seizures: “focal” or “local” seizures begins in one cerebral hemisphere.
o Complex partial: loss of consciousness (syncope) for 1-3 min. PT unaware of the environment and may wander at the start of the seizure. PT may have amnesia.
o Simple partial: remains conscious throughout episode. PT may report aura (unusual sensation) before the seizure takes place. Déjà vu feeling, offensive smell, sudden onset of pain. During the seizure, PT may have one-side movement. Change in heart rate; skin flushing, and epigastric discomfort.
7. Unclassified or idiopathic seizures: occur for no known reason
Addison’s Disease: everything low (hyponatremia, hypovolemia, hypotension (due to volume depletion), hypoglycemia). K+ high/CA high!!! Add hormones!!!
• S/S: muscle weakness, fatigue, joint/muscle pain, anorexia, N/V, abdominal pain, constipation/diarrhea, weight loss, salt craving, vitiligo (white patches on skin), hyperpigmentation, anemia, hypotension, hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, hypercalcemia.
• Interventions: promote fluid balance, monitor fluid deficit, and prevent hypoglycemia, CORTISOL/ALDOSTERONE deficiencies are corrected. Mineralocorticoid hormone (fludrocortisone) needed to maintain electrolyte balance.
SIADH: TOO MUCH FLUID ON BOARD!!! Caused by tumor or brain injury. Too much ADH, restrict fluids, Na decreased leading to confusion!
• Reason for condition: Increase in ADH, may be due to Guillian Barre, meningitis, encephalitis, brain tumor, psychosis, head injury
• Presentation: hyponatremia
• Serum Osmolarity: euvolemic (Presence of the proper amount of blood in the body) [Show Less]