1. The percentage of the FVC expired in one second is:
a. FEV1/FVC ratio
2. The aging process causes what normal physiological changes in the heart?
a... [Show More] . The heart valve thickens and becomes rigid, secondary to fibrosis and sclerosis.
3. A 55yo Caucasian male follows up after referral to cardiologist. He thinks his med is causing a cough and sometimes he has difficulty breathing. Which med was most likely prescribed?
4. JM is a 68yo man who presents for a physical. He has T2DM x5yrs, smokes 1/2 PPD, BMI is 30. No other previous medical dx, no current complaints. According to the AHA/ACC guidelines, JM is stage A HF. Treatment goals for him include:
a. Heart healthy lifestyle
5. MJ presents with h/o structural damage with current s/s of HF. Treatment will be based on his stage of HF, which is:
a. Stage C
6. 65yo Caucasian female presents with mitral valve stenosis, physical exam unremarkable. You know her stage of HF is:
7. DG, 65yo man, presents for eval of CP and L-sided shoulder pain, beginning after strenuous activity, including walking. Pain is dull, aching, 8/10 during activity, otherwise 0/10. Began few mo ago, intermittent, aggravated by exercise, relieved by rest. Occasional nausea. Pain is retrosternal, radiating to L shoulder, affects QOL by limiting activity. Pain is worse today, did not go away after stopped walking. BP 120/80, HR 72 and regular. Normal heart sounds, no murmur, S1, S2. Which differential dx would be most likely?
a. Coronary artery dz w/angina pectoris
8. The best way to dx structural heart dz/dysfunction non-invasively is:
9. Chronic pain can have major impact on pt's ability to function and have profound impact on overall QOL. Ongoing pain may be linked to:
a. Depression, sleep disturbance, decreased socialization
10. The Beers criteria are appropriate for use in evaluating use of certain meds in pts:
11. Pt presents with c/o increasing SOB, cough w/occasional white sputum, fatigue. As part of the plan you order labs. You know the likelihood of HF is low if the BNP is:
12. All of the following statements are true about lab values in older adults except:
a. Normal ranges may not be applicable to older adults
b. Abnormal findings are often due to physiological aging
c. Reference ranges are preferable
d. References values are not necessarily acceptable values
13. According to the 2017 ACC HTN guidelines, the recommended BP goal for a 65yo African American woman w/a h/o HTN and DM and no h/o CKD is:
14. The pathophysiology of HF is due to:
a. Inadequate cardiac output to meet the metabolic and O2 demands of the body
15. A 60yo woman w/30 pack yr hx, presents for eval of persistent, daily cough w/increased sputum, worse in the AM, occurring over past 3 months. She tells you, "I have the same thing year after year." Which of the following choices would you consider strongly in your critical thinking process?
a. Chronic bronchitis
16. JM is a 68yo man who presents for a physical. He has T2DM x5yrs, diet controlled. His BMI is 32. He has HTN, smoker (10 cigs/day x20yrs). He denies other medical problems. Fam hx includes CAD, CABG x4 for dad, now deceased; CHF, T2DM, HTN for mom. He is asymptomatic today, exam is normal, EKG NSR. According to AHA/ACC guidelines, JM is at risk for what stage of HF?
a. Stage A
The volume of air a pt is able to exhale for total duration of the test during maximal effort is:
17. According to the 2017 ACC HTN guidelines, normal BP is:
18. Functional abilities are best assessed by:
a. Observed assessment of function
19. LB is a 77yo pt w/chronic poorly controlled HTN. You know that goals include prevention of target organ damage. During your eval you will assess for evidence of:
a. L ventricular hypertrophy
20. Aortic regurgitation requires medical treatment for early signs of HF with:
21. The volume of air in the lungs at max inflation is:
a. TLC (total lung capacity)
22. Preferred amount of exercise for older adults is:
a. 30min/day of aerobic activity 5 days/wk
23. The total volume of air a pt is able to exhale in the first second during max effort is:
24. You know the following statements regarding the pain of acute coronary syndrome are true except:
a. Present atypically more often in men than women
25. Elderly pt presents w/new onset of feeling heart race, fatigue. EKG reveals afib w/rate >100. Pt also has a new tremor in both hands. Which of the following would you suspect?
26. 62yo female c/o fatigue, lack of energy. Constipation increased, pt gained 10lbs in past 3mo. Depression is denied although pt reports lack of interest in usual hobbies. VS are WNL, skin is dry/cool. Which of the following must be included in the DD?
27. Mrs. Black, 87yo, has been taking 100mcg Synthroid x10yrs. She comes for routine follow-up, feeling well. HR is 90. Your first response is to:
a. Order TSH
28. Which pt is most likely to have osteoporosis?
29. 80yo underweight male who smokes and has been on steroids for psoriasis
30. When evaluating the expected outcome for hypothyroid elderly pt on levothyroxine, you will:
a. Assess TSH in 4-6wks
31. Postmenopausal woman w/osteoporosis is taking bisphosphonate daily PO. What action info statement would indicate she understood your instructions regarding this med?
a. Take med w/full glass of water when up in the AM 30min before other food and meds
32. Primary reason levothyroxine sodium is initiated at low dose in elderly pt w/hypothyroidism is to prevent which of the following untoward effects?
a. Angina and arrhythmia
33. 6mo ago an elderly pt was dx'd w/subclinical hypothyroidism. Today the pt returns and has TSH of 11 and c/o fatigue. He has taken Synthroid 25mcg daily as prescribed. What is the best course of action?
a. Double the dose
34. A fluoroquinolone (Cipro) is prescribed for a male pt w/a UTI. What should you teach him regarding this med?
a. Its effectiveness is decreased by antacids, iron, or caffeine
35. Pt has been rx'd metformin (Glucophage). One wk later, he returns w/lowered BGL but c/o loose [Show Less]