Exam Exam 2: Week 5- Chapters 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 54…and concepts from preventing med errors and patient education from class disc... [Show More] ussion & class ROK.
Purpose: The Review of Knowledge (ROK) focuses on course outcomes, unit outcomes and key concepts to enhance student success on exams. Use this document as a focused guide for study in conjunction with assigned readings, PowerPoint presentations, and other course resources. Supplement this document by outlining your own notes from the textbook chapters and place your expanded more detailed notes in the Student Notes column. This document should NOT be used as a substitute for completing the assigned readings.
Key Concepts Chapters Student Notes
**You do not need to write out each definition. Make sure you understand these words or write a brief definition in your own words.
Alpha1 Blockers Centrally acting adrenergic Essential hypertension
Secondary hypertension Orthostatic hypotension
Angina pectoris Reflex tachycardia Vasospastic angina
Atrial Fibrillation Chronotropic drugs Dromotopic Drugs
Inotropic drugs Heart failure
Arrhythmia vs. Dysrhythmia Action potential Depolarization
Supraventricular Tachycardia Ventricular Tachycardia Torsades de pointes
Antihypertensive Drugs: “Drug therapy for hypertension needs to be individualized. Important considerations in planning drug therapy are whether the patient has multiple medical problems and what impact drug therapy will have on the patient's quality of life. For example, sexual dysfunction in males is a common adverse effect of many antihypertensive drugs, but especially beta blockers, and is the most common reason for nonadherence to drug therapy. Demographic factors, cultural implications, the ease of medication administration (e.g., a once-a-day dosing schedule or transdermal administration), and cost are other important considerations. There are essentially seven main categories of pharmacologic drugs used to treat hypertension: 1.) diuretics, 2) adrenergic drugs, 3) vasodilators, 4) angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors,5) angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), 6) calcium channel blockers (CCBs), and 7) direct renin inhibitors. There are drugs in the vasodilator category called 8) direct vasodilators. Drugs in any of these classes may be used either alone or in combination. The various categories and subcategories of antihypertensive drugs are listed in Box 22-1.” (Lilley p 349)
Lifespan considerations: 1. What should we consider when treating a pregnant hypertensive client with medication?
2. What medication(s) would be considered first line? Any others we can use? What medication(s) would be contraindicated?
3. Explain when a pregnant client with high blood pressure is considered to have primary hypertension versus preeclampsia?
4. List nursing considerations for hypertension treatment in the elderly.
Briefly describe how each drug class generally works: The sampling of drugs we will be focusing on are listed below.
Drug class Brief: Mechanism of Action
Central Acting Alpha2Adrenergic
(Clonidine & Methydopa)
Alpha blockers-peripheral acting (Prazosin, Doxasozin)
Beta Blockers- (cardioselective & noncardioselective)
(Atenolol; Labetolol; Metoprolol)
Dual-Action Alpha1 & Beta receptor blocker (carvedilol)
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) (Lisinopril)
Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBS) (Losarten)
Calcium channel blockers (Amlodipine, Dilitiazem, Procardia)
Vasodilators [Show Less]