HESI A2 BIOLOGY (100 Questions and Answers)
1. Which movement requires carrier protein but no direct cellular energy? Facilitated transport
2. Which ... [Show More] term denotes the movement of glucose molecules from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration?
3. Plasmolysis is a term describing?
Cellular shrinkage, which occurs when cells are immersed in hypertonic solurion
4. The movement of substances from lesser concentration to higher concentration is called? Active transport
5. Which particular structure is present in both eucaryotic and prokaryotic cells? Cell membrane
6. Plant cells differ from animal cells in?
The plant cells have a cell wall and animal cells do not
7. Which cell type is characterized by the lack of true nucleus and the absence of membrane-bound organelle?
8. Which organelle is associated with hydrolytic enzymes and is sometimes reffered to as a "suicide bag"
9. Pinocytosis is the process of?
Enclosing a liquid substance in a membrane and secreting it into the cell
10. The plasma membrane of the eurokaryotic cell determines selectively which substances can enter and leave the cell. Such a membrane is said to be ?
11. What primarily determines the shape of cells that lack cell walls? Microtubule and microfilaments
12. Which pair of organelles is responsible foe energy supply to eurokaryotic cells? Chloroplast and mitochondria
13. Whit which organelle is the synthesis of ATP associated?
14. The plasma membrane is soluble to? Lipids
15. The process whereby muscle cell produce lactic acid is called? Fermentation
16. During aerobic respiration, which one of the following substances is released? 36ATP
17. Noncyclic-photophosphorylation takes place inside the? Thylakoids
18. The dark reaction of photosynthesis takes place in ? Stroma
19. Aerobic cellular respiration is more important to sustaining life than anaerobic because it produces?
20. Which organelle is responsible for oxygen production? Chloroplast
21. An organic catalyst that enhances the chemical reaction is called ? An enzyme
22. The first stage of aerobic cellular respiration is? Glycolysis
23. Glycolysis occurs in the ? Cytoplasm
24. For the aerobic pathway, electron transport systems are located in the ? Mitochondrion
25. Codominance occurs when?
Both the alleles in a heterozygote are expressed phenotypically in a individual
26. Mitosis in a single human cell usually results in the formation of ? 2 diploid cells
27. Meiosis in a single human cell usually results in the formation of ? 4 haploid cells
28. If you reproduce sexually, you produce gamets via?
29. If you reproduce asexually, you produce offspring via? Mitosis
30. What type of allele is expressed in the phenotype of only a homozygous individual? Dominant
31. The sex of a human child is determined by the sex chromosome from? The father
32. Cell division occurs most rapidly in? Cancerous tissue
33. Which blood type would be a universal donor?
34. Passage of water through the membrane of a cell is called ?
35. Which term includes all others? Organism
36. The kreb cycle produces? CO2 and H2
37. The presence of which substance is most important for all cell activity ? Water
38. The basic structure of a cell membranes is a ? Protein-impregnated phospholipid bilayer
39. Cytoplasmic structures that contain powerful hydrolysis enzymes, which could lead to cell destruction in the absence of surrounding membranes, are?
40. Organic substances made up of several amino acids bound together are? Proteins
41. The smallest known microorganisms are? Viruses
42. The end product of protein metabolism is ? Amino acids
43. Carbohydrates are absorbed into the blood as ?
44. The substance basic to life is? Proteins
45. The body obtains most of its nitrogen from ? Proteins
46. The basic unit of living organism is ? Cell
47. The diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane is known as ? Osmosis
48. The process in which carbon dioxide and water are combined under the influence of light in green plants is called ?
49. A protein substance that initiates and accelerates a chemical reaction is called ? Enzyme
50. Amino acids that cannot be manufactured by the body are called ? Essential amino acids
51. The body's continual response to changes in the external and internal enviroment is called
52. The ability of a cell to reproduce is called ? Mitosis
53. The part of the cell necessary for reproduction is the ? Nucleus
54. Proteins are polymers of ? Amino acids
55. In cellular metabolism glycolysis ? Does not require O2
56. Cellular proteins are synthesized in ? Ribosomes
57. In eukaryotic cells, the phase of division that produces two daughter cells is ? Cytokinesis
58. Some substances are transported across cell membranes by proteins known as ? Permeases
59. The cellular organelle where respiratory reactions for the release of energy occurs is a ? Mitochondrion
60. The most efficient cellular respiratiry process, in terms of energy-yield per molecule of glucose, is ?
61. A cellular organelle found in typical plant cells but not in typical animal cells is the ? Chloroplast
62. Every cell contains ?
A cell membrane and cytoplasm
63. The two organic substances present in chromosomes are ? Protein and nucleic acid
64. Genes may be defined as ? Functional segments of chromosomes
65. The dense mass of ribonucleic acid found within the nucleus is the ? Nucleolus
66. The endoplasmic reticulum may be described as a ? Series of membranes in the cell's cytoplasm
67. The lysosomes of a cell contain many ? Digestive enzyme
68. The mitochondria of the cell are best known as the organelles where ? Energy is released from food molecules
69. The flagella of human cells cause ? Cell movement
70. During the process of diffusion
Molecules moves from a region of high concentrarion to one of low concentration
71. The plasma membrane is a semipermeable membrane because it ? Lets only certain molecules through
72. In active transport, chemical substances move from a region of low concentrationto one of high concentration, and therefore they require ?
An expediture of energy
73. Phagocytosis is a form of endocytosis in which? The cell takes particulate matter into itself
74. Virtually all chemical reactions of the cell are catalyzed by ? Enzymes
75. The energy is released from an ATP molecule when ? The terminal phosphate group is released
76. Interphase is the phase of a cell cycle in which ? The cell performes its unique functions
77. Chromatids, chromosomes, and chromatin are all simillar to one another because ? All contains DNA
78. The codon is a three-base group of nucleotides that specifies ? An amino acid
79. Protein synthesis in the cell could not occur in the absence of ? Amino acid molecules
80. A molecules of messenger RNA contains ? Exons but no introns
81. Which of the following is the structure of the male reproductive system that stores spermatozoa during the maturation process?
A) vas deferens
D) testicular artery
82. Which of the following types of hormones stimulates a chemical response to a target cell by diffusing through the cell membrane to bind to the receptors inside the cell?
A) fat-soluble hormones
B) amino acid derivatives
C) hydrophilic hormones
D) water-soluble hormones
83. Which of the following is an example of human error in an experiment?
A) an imperfectly calibrated scale
B) contaminating a sterile sample by breathing on it
C) a draft in the laboratory slightly changing the temperature of a liquid
D) failure to account for wind speed when measuring distance traveled
84. Within the biologic hierarchic system of organization, which of the following is least inclusive?
85. In the scientific process, which of the following is a statement or explanation of certain events or happenings?
86. Why is polarity the most important characteristic of water?
A) the results of the polarity are hydrogen bonding, a high specific heat value, and its versatile solvent properties
B) the results of the polarity are covalent bonding, a low specific heat value, and its versatile solvent properties
C) the results of the polarity are ionic bonding, a high specific heat value, and its versatile solvent properties
D) the results of the polarity are hydrogen bonding, a low specific heat value, and its versatile solvent properties
the results of the polarity are hydrogen bonding, a high specific heat value, and its versatile solvent properties
87. Athletes are often concerned with the question of what they need in their diets to increase muscle mass and strength. What biologic molecule would you recommend that would accomplish this?
D) nucleic acids
88. Which organelle would you expect to be present in a cell responsible for detoxifying multiple molecules?
A) rough er
B) smooth er
D) golgi apparatus
89. A cell from heart muscle would more than likely contain an unusually high proportion of:
90. The sum of all chemical reactions that occur in an organism is:
91. A cell that does not contain membrane-bound organelles or a defined nucleus would be classified as:
92. The two catabolic pathways that lead to cellular energy production are:
A) fermentation and protein synthesis
B) cellular respiration and glycolysis
C) fermentation and glycolysis
D) cellular respiration and fermentation
93. Which part of cellular respiration produces the greatest amount of ATP?
A) electron transport chain
C) citric acid cycle
94. When plants do not receive enough water, their photosynthetic rate drops. This is because:
A) water is a raw material for the light reactions in photosynthesis
B) carbon dioxide is not available
C) water provides the carbon atoms used to make sugar
D) not enough oxygen is produced to keep fermentation running
95. How does asexual reproduction differ from sexual reproduction?
A) asexual reproduction results in all cells being identical to the original cell; sexual reproduction results in half of the cells being identical to the original cell
B) asexual reproduction results in two cells that contribute genetic material to daughter cells, resulting in significantly greater variation
C) sexual reproduction involves two cells that contribute genetic material to daughter cells, resulting in significantly greater variation
D) sexual reproduction involves one cell that yields all cells produced to be identical
96. Why is it important for cells to undergo mitosis?
A) mitosis allows for reproduction with male and female gametes
B) mitosis increases variation within the species
C) mitosis produces cells that are different from the parent cell
D) mitosis produces cells for growth and repair of body tissue
97. 72 chromosomes undergo meiosis. How many chromosomes will be in each gamete?
98. Which of the following shows how information in transformed to make a protein?
C) ATP-amino acid-protein
99. Which of the following describes the gene in which one allele takes a different form from another?
D) homozygous [Show Less]