HESI A2 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
1. Anatomic position
The body is erect, the feet are slightly apart, the head is held high, and the palms of the hands are... [Show More] facing forward
2. Which of the following is a structure found in the upper respiratory? Pharynx
3. A person who has damage to their ulnar nerve will have decreases sensation in Arm
4. Which bone dose not articulate with any other bone? Hyoid
5. Which of the following statements best describe endocrine glands? They secrete chemicals into the blood
6. Diet is important because bone are storage places for Calcium and phosphorous
7. Which organ is part of both the male reproductive system and the urinary system? Urethra
8. Red blood cell production is known as which of the following?
A. Hematopoiesis B. Erythropoiesis
9. When an individual is under stress, hormones are released. Which of the following is not one of the locations in which hormones are released when under stress?
B. Adrenal cortex
C. Posterior pituitary
10. The central nervous system is made up of all except which of the following?
D. Spinal cord
11. The thyrotrophic-releasing growth hormone-releasing, and gonadotropin-releasing hormones are released by which of the following endocrine system glands?
B. Pituitary gland
C. Pineal gland D. Hypothalamus
12. What is the most visible part of the ear? A. Pinna
B. Organ of Corti
D. Ear canal
13. Which of the following is an organ of the respiratory system?
A. Brain B. Larynx
14. The motor cortex helps the brain by monitoring and controlling the body's movement. Where is the motor cortex located within the brain?
A. Top, middle portion of the parietal lobe.
B. Back of the head
C. Front portion of the parietal lobe.
D. Around the auditory cortex
15. The heart contains four chambers. Which of these four chambers is the largest and the strongest?
A. Left ventricle
B. Left atrium
C. Right ventricle
D. Right atrium
16. Which of the following organs is involved with the immune system?
B. Bronchi C. Appendix
17. Which of the following is not a principal organ of the nervous system?
A. Brian B. Thymus
D. Spinal cord
18. Where do the endocrine system and the nervous system meet?
A. At the pituitary gland and the pineal gland B. At the hypothalamus and pituitary gland
C. At the pineal gland
D. At the thyroid gland
19. The pancreas is an endocrine system gland mainly responsible for which of the following?
A. Proper bone development
B. Metabolism control
C. Maintaining healthy sugar levels
D. Distribution of stored fat.
20. The stomach lining membrane name?
The mucous membrane of the stomach contains simple columnar epithelium tissue with many exocrine cells.
21. skin aids in maintaining the calcium and phophate levels of the body by participating in the production of which of the following
22. all action of the nervous system depend on the transmission of nerve impulses over which of the following?
23. which hormone initiates the preparation of the endometrium of the uterus for pregnancy
24. which female reproductive organ's produce oocytes, estrogen and progesterone ovaries
25. the buttocks is on which surface the body dorsal
26. the esophagus is located at which body cavity thoracic
27. which is a hollow organ gallbladder
28. which muscle is included in the quadriceps femoris group vastus lateralis
29. what occur when the sympathetic nervous system is stimulated? cardiac output
30. which hormone is produce by the posterior pituitary gland oxytocin
31. which structure regulat the transport of substance in and out of a cell the cellular membrane
32. a person who damages to their ulnar nerve will have decrease sesutior in which area arm
33. when assessing a female client who describes herself as a vegetarian in the nurse notes that she has an unusual skin color. The nurse should ask the client if she has eaten large amount of:
carrot and squash
34. which structure produces B-lymphocytes
Red bone marrow
35. how many days is the avarage menstrul cycle
36. where in the human body are nutrients absorbed
37. The central nervous system is made up of all except which of the following? heart
38. The motor cortex helps the brain by monitoring and controlling the body's movement. Where is the motor cortex located within the brain?
top, the middle portion of the parietal lobe.
39. The heart contains four chambers. Which of these four chambers is the largest and the strongest?
40. Which of the following is not a principal organ of the nervous system? thymus
41. The pancreas is an endocrine system gland mainly responsible for which of the following?
maintain healthy blood sugar level
42. Tough elastic tissues found in the joints that connect bones to bones are called: ligament
43. What mineral is responsible for muscle contractions? calcium
44. Where can the urinary bladder and internal reproductive organs be found? pelvic cavity
45. Nerve tissue is composed of neurons and connective tissue cells that are referred to as which of the following?
46. Which tissue serves as the framework of the body by providing support and structure for the organs?
47. What are the glands of skin that produce a thin, watery secretion eccrine glands
48. You have been given a sample of tissue that has open spaces partially filled by an assemblage of needle like structures. What is this tissue?
49. Which mineral is responsible for regulating fluid in the body?
50. Motor or neurons transmit nerve impulses away from the CNS. efferent
51. What are chemical messengers that control growth, differentiation, and the metabolism of specific target cells called?
52. Which blood vessel where exchanges take place between blood and the cells of the body? capillary
53. The stomach muscle churns and mixes food, turning the mass into a soupy substance called what?
54. All the nutrients that enter the hepatic portal vein are routed where for decontamination? liver
55. In men, spermatozoa develop within the of each testis Seminiferous tubules
56. During pregnancy, what organ produces the hormones that maintain the endometrium and prepare the breasts for milk production?
57. Gland whose secretion is oily- a mixture of oily substances and cell fragments sabasious
58. Sweat gland whose secretion is s primarily water and salts plus contains protein and fatty subsatances
59. Smooth muscle structure in the skin arrrector pilli
60. What type of joint is the elbow hinge
61. What type of joint is the hip and shoulder ball and socket
62. what are the two most abundant minerals stored in bones extracellular matrix calcium and phosphate
63. The most abundant glial cells found in the CNS that anchor neurons to capillaries and help control the environment around neurons
64. What does the adrenal medulla secrete? Epinephrine and norepinephrine
65. Which skin cancer is the most dangerous? malignant melanoma
-becaus it matastisizes(spreads)
-Cancer of the melanocytes
66. Which skin cancer is moderatly dangerous? squamous cell carcinom
-arises from keratinocytes of stratum spinosum
67. Which skin cancer is least dangerous? basal cell carcinoma
68. What is the only artery in the body to carry oxygen-poor blood? pulmonary artery
69. Chocolate cysts of the ovaries are attributed to . endometriosis
70. tendons connect muscle to bone
71. Where is interstitial fluid found in the body? in the tissues around cells
72. Which lobe of the brain is associated with judgement, planning, impulse control, and social behavior?
73. What does lipase do?
It breaks down fats into fatty acids and glycerol.
74. In what area of the body would you expect to find and especially thick stratum corneum? Heel of the foot
75. What two things must be present for a muscle cell to contract?
Calcium & adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
76. the esophagus is located at which body cavity
b) abdominal c) thoracic
77. What is the response of CF cell in the collecting tubules in the nephrons when antiduretic hormone (ADH) is secreted?
Water is reabsorbed from the urinary filtration?
78. what is the function of ADH hormone
Regulate water balance in the body by controlling the amount of water the kidneys reabsorb
79. which muscle is included in tue quadriceps femoris group
d) rectus abdominus
80. the calcaneous is located in whih part of the body the leg
81. Where is the tympanic membrane located? external auditorium canal and tympanic cavity
82. Fats are broken down in the small intestine using which enzyme(s)?
Fats also known as lipids are broken down using lipase produced by the pancreas and bile produced by the liver but transferred to the small intestine through the bile duct.
83. What is the only artery to carry oxygen-poor blood? Pulmonic Artery
84. What do ligaments connect? Bone to Bone
85. Is epithelial tissue vascular or avascular? Avascular
86. Which of the following describes the primary function of the respiratory system?
A) to create sound and speech
B) to take oxygen into the body while removing carbon dioxide
C) to transport nutrients to the cells and tissue of the body
D) to act as a barrier between the body's organs and outside influences
87. Which of the following is the first step of the scientific method?
A) construct a hypothesis
B) make observations
C) analyze data
D) form a question
88. The process of organisms with an advantageous trait surviving more often and producing more offspring than organisms without the advantageous trait describes which of the following basic mechanisms?
A) gene flow
B) genetic drift
D) natural selection
89. Which of the following is the group of basophils that produces follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone?
90. Which of the following are considered the basic units of the female reproductive system, each containing a single immature egg cell that is released during ovulation?
91. Which of the following describes the muscular organ that processes food material into increasingly smaller pieces, mixes it with saliva to create a bolus, and creates a barrier to transport food into the esophagus?
92. Which of the following chambers of the heart receives blood returning from the lungs during pulmonary circulation?
A) left atrium
B) right atrium
C) left ventricle
D) right ventricle
93. Which of the following is the lobe in the cerebral cortex primarily responsible for processing and integrating sensory information received from the rest of the body?
A) frontal lobe
B) occipital lobe C) parietal lobe
94. Which of the following is an example of adaptive, or specific, immunity?
95. Which of the following describes a situation in which research results are consistent with every subsequent experiment, but the test used in the experiment does not measure what it claims to measure?
A) reliable, but not valid
B) valid, but not reliable
C) neither reliable or valid
D) both reliable and valid
96. Which of the following Mendellian laws describes how pairs of alleles within genes separate and recombine separately from other genes?
A) law of segregation
B) law of dominance
C) law of independent assortment
D) law of predictive traits
97. Which of the following describes how atomic radius varies across the periodic table?
A) atomic radius increases from top to bottom and left to right on the periodic table
B) atomic radius increases from top to bottom and right to left on the periodic table
C) atomic radius increases from top to bottom and toward the halogens on the periodic table
D) atomic radius increases from top to bottom and toward the noble gases on the periodic table
98. Which of the following is NOT a tissue layer found in skeletal bones?
B) bone marrow
D) cancellous bone
99. Which of the following sets of valves is primarily responsible for preventing blood flow from major blood vessels to the heart?
A) atrioventricular valves
B) semilunar valves
C) tricuspid valves
D) bicuspid valves
100. Bone is composed primarily of which of the following inorganic materials?
101. Which of the following is the primary physical barrier the body uses to prevent infection?
A) mucus membranes
B) stomach acid
102. Which of the following is the connective area where nerve impulses send neurotransmitters across a synapse to a muscle cell to stimulate muscle contraction?
C) nicotinic receptors
D) neuromuscular junctions
103. Which of the following is the region of the brain that controls and regulates autonomic functions such as respiration, digestion, and heart rate?
B) medulla oblongata
C) temporal lobe
D) cerebral cortex
104. Which of the following describes the primary function of the pyloric sphincter?
A) to regulate the movement of digested food material from the stomach to the duodenum
B) to neutralize stomach acid
C) to prevent food materials and stomach acid from leaking into other bodily tissues
D) to begin the process of chemical digestion
105. Which of the following is the location of fertilization in the females?
B) fallopian tube
106. The pineal gland is located in which of the following areas in the body?
A) below the larynx
B) above the kidney
C) at the center of the brain hemispheres
D) at the base of the brain
107. Which of the following processes aids scientists in observing a population sample in order to answer questions about the whole population?
A) univariate analysis
B) inferential statistics
C) descriptive statistics
108. Which of the following biological macromolecules is non-soluble, composed of hydrocarbons, and acts as an important source of energy storage for the body?
B) nucleic acids
109. Which of the following is specialized tissue in the right atrium that acts as the heart's natural pacemaker by generating the electrical signal for the heartbeat?
A) sinus venosus
B) sinoatrial node
C) atrioventricular node
110. Which of the following is a dense, interconnected mass of nerve cells located outside the central nervous system?
C) cranial nerve
111. Which of the following is the primary cell found in the tract of the small intestine?
A) surface absorptive cells
B) surface lining cells
C) parietal cells
112. Which of the following describes the general function of cytokines in the immune system?
A) they communicate between cells to instigate an immune response
B) they inhibit blood clotting during inflammation responses
C) they bind to specific pathogens to increase pathogen mass
D) they transport pathogens trapped in mucus to be destroyed in the stomach
113. Which of the following describes the path through which air moves during inhalation?
A) mouth/nose > pharynx > larynx > trachea > bronchi > bronchioles > alveoli
B) bronchioles > alveoli > bronchi > larynx > pharynx > lungs
C) mouth/nose > bronchi > bronchioles > alveoli > lungs > trachea
D) alveoli > bronchioles > lungs > bronchi > trachea > larynx > pharynx > mouth/nose
114. Which of the following is not a function of progesterone in the female reproductive system?
A) expression of secondary sexual characteristics, such as enlarged breasts
B) stimulation of milk production in the breasts
C) regulation and preparation of the endometrial lining of the uterus for potential pregnancy
D) inhibition of contractions of the uterus as the ovum is released
115. Which of the following layers of skin acts as an energy reserve by storing adipocytes and releasing them into circulation when energy is needed?
D) stratum basale
116. Neurotransmitters send chemical messages across the gap between one neuron and another in which of the following structures?
A) cell membrane
117. Hund's rule states which of the following?
A) chemical bonds are formed only between electrons with similar spin
B) the attraction between electrons holds atoms together
C) a ground state atom always has a completely filled valence shell
D) electrons fill orbitals singly and with similar spin before pairing
34) Which of the following is the primary function of the large intestine?
A) absorbing digested material into the blood
B) nutrient processing and metabolizing
C) absorbing water and compacting material into solid waste
D) bile production and storage
35) When setting up the above experiment, the scientist has the option of using a separate water filter for each of the three tanks or using a single filtration system that attaches all three and affects them simultaneously. Which of the following filter set ups makes a more valid experiment and why?
A) separate filters for each of the three tanks, because this ensures a higher quality of water for each tank
B) one filtration system for all three tanks, because this makes filtration a controlled variable
C) one filtration system for all three tanks, because this reduces the workload for the researcher
D) separate filters for each of the three tanks, because this adds another variable to be tested and analyzed for inclusion in the experiment's results [Show Less]