1. Which of the following is a characteristic of non-experimental designs?
2. Which of the following non-experimental designs comes closest to examinin... [Show More] g causal relationships?
3. The school psychologist was asked by one teacher to develop a program to eliminate the disruptive behaviors of one of her students. The psychologist needed more information about how often the behavior occurred, where it occurred, and what provoked the behavior. What type of study will the psychologist conduct to obtain this information?
4. Which of the following statements is NOT TRUE of relationship studies?
5. Prediction studies are characterized by
6. When interpreting the results of correlational research, you may find that the low correlation reported by the researcher could be attributed to
7. In a study of high school drop-outs, it was found that students who came from homes where parents had not completed high school were more likely to drop out of school than similar students whose parents had completed high school. This is an example of
8. A researcher studied the physical and academic development of premature babies. After the first observation at birth, he studied them every five years until age twenty. This is an example of a (n)
9. In which study are the same individuals studied over time?
10. If a researcher is quite concerned about the response rate in his study, he could
11. A student has decided to use a web-based survey to collect data for his study. Which of the following would you recommend he do?
12. There are many correlational studies suggesting that student engagement (i.e., time-on-task) is highly correlated to student achievement. Which of the following suggestions is MOST reasonable given the limitations of correlational designs?
13. A correlational study examined the relationship between students' prior achievement and their level of self-regulated learning. The results were reported as statistically significant (r = .13, p. = .03). With what should you be concerned?
14. In experimental research, the researcher tries to keep which variable constant?
15. Internal validity refers to the extent to which
16. Changes in subjects due to participation in an experiment is what type of threat to internal validity?
17. A researcher is studying the comparative efficacy of two methods for teaching the metric system to sixth graders. The school where the study is being conducted groups students according to ability, so the researcher assigns Method A to the honors math class and Method B to the next level. What threat to internal validity has occurred?
18. The question, "Can the findings from this study by generalized to other subjects?" is related to what aspect of a study?
19. Which of the following in NOT a potential external validity threat?
20. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the single group pretest-post-test design?
21. A major internal validity concern in a non-equivalent groups, pretest - post-test, experimental control group design is
22. Dr. Landry is interested in examining the effects of a very demanding counseling approach to help college students stop smoking. There is typically a significant level of frustration experienced by his clients. Dr. Landry has chosen a randomized, pretest - post-test, experimental control group design. Which threat to internal validity should concern him MOST?
23. Factorial experimental designs enable researchers to
24. Which design enables the researcher to replicate a treatment for an individual over a number of different settings?
25. All of the following are criteria for evaluating single-subject research EXCEPT
26. With inferential statistics, the researcher can
27. Probability can be defined as
28. During a study a researcher should attempt to control which of the following?
29. Inferential statistics are needed because
30. A researcher compared two methods for teaching inferential statistics to college students. Group 1 was taught with Method A, and Group 2 with Method B. A comparison of post-test scores indicated that the results were significantly different (p = .05) in favor of Method A. This means that
31. Which of the following reflects the logic of inferential testing?
32. A researcher is trying to determine which is the more effective method for teaching comprehension skills to learning disabled students, Method A or Method B. There is no difference between Method A and Method B according to which hypothesis?
33. Suppose a researcher must obtain a significance level of p = .01 to reject the null hypothesis. After analyzing his data, he finds that his results are significant at the p = .001 level. The researcher should
34. Which of the following decisions accurately describes a significant result?
35. A researcher who makes a Type II error
36. Which of the following set of assumptions can be made when using parametric statistics?
37. In a study investigating the effects of a social skills training program, pretest and post-test scores were obtained from 30 students diagnosed as behaviorally disordered. Which statistical test should the researcher use to test the null hypothesis that there is no difference between the pre-test and post-test scores?
38. A fourth-grade teacher wants to determine the efficacy of a new spelling method with each of her four reading groups. She uses the new method for several weeks, then conducts a test. Which statistical procedure should this teacher use to answer the following question: Is there a significant difference in test scores between any two reading groups?
39. Which of the following is true of an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)?
40. Multivariate statistical procedures allow a researcher to [Show Less]