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1 Why is polarity the most important characteristic of water? The results of the polarity are hydrogen bonding, a high specific heat value, and its versa... [Show More] tile solvent properties 2 A cell from heart muscle would more than likely contain an unusually proportion of Mitochondria 3 What part of cellular respiration produces the greatest amount of atp? Electron transport chain 4 The Krebs and Calvin cycles both result in a net production of what? ATP, NADH 5 Why is it important for cells to undergo mitosis? Mitosis produces cells for growth and repair body tissue. 6 How is information transformed to make a protein? DNA-RNA-protein 7 Hierarchic system of classification Kingdom, Phylum, Class, order, family, Genus, Species 8 Allels Any of several forms of a gene, usually arising through mutation, that are responsible for heredity variation 9 Amino Acids Any of a class of organic compounds that contain at least one amino group, -NH , and are carboxyl group, -COOH: The alpha amino acids , are building blocks from which proteins are constructed 10 Anaphase Begins when chromosomes start to separate. In this phase, the chromosome are considered separate chromosomes. 11 Binary Fission Fission into two organisms approximately equal in size. Type of a sexual reproduction; parent cell splits into two identical daughter cells 12 Cellular Membrane *Most important component of the cell, contributing to protection, communication, and the passage of substances into and out of the cell. *Consists of a bilayer of phospholipids with proteins, cholesterol, and glycoproteins. *Phospholipids are amphipathic molecules, this bilayer creates a hydrophobic region between the two layers of lipids, making it selectively permeable. 13 Chloroplasts *Found in plants and are the sites of photosynthesis *Produce cell energy 14 Chromosomes Compact rod-shaped bodies located with in the nucleus of a cell; contain DNA 15 Codon Three base sequence of messenger RNA ; each sequence of nucleotides in mRNA that base pairs with DNA base triplet. * These code for a specific amino acid 16 Cytoplasm Cellular contents between the plasma membrane and the nucleus includes cytosol and organelles 17 Cytokinesis Division of the cytoplasm into two cells. It is achieved by the motor protein myosin pulling microfilaments of actin in the terminal web of the cytoskeleton. This creates a crease called the cleavage furrow around the equator of the cell, and eventually pinches into two 18 Cytosol Fluid that surrounds the organelles 19 Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) A unique molecule specific to a particular organism; it contains the genetic code that is necessary for replication. *they described a double helical structure that contains the four nitrogenous bases adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine. Each base forms hydrogen bonds with another base of the complimentary strand. A-T, G-C. 20 Electron Transport Chain Series of steps in cellular respiration that produces water and ATP. The energy harvest here is remarkable for every glucose molecule, 28 to 32 ATP molecules can be produced. 21 Exocytosis Membrane enclose "secretory" vesicles form inside cell, fuse with plasma membrane, and release their contents into extracellular fluid 22 Endocytosis Materials move into a cell in a vesicle formed by plasma membrane 23 Glycolysis Anaerobic breakdown of glucose; first step in cellular respiration. The conversion of glucose to pyruvate. This takes place in the cystol of the cell and produces 2 molecules of ATP, 2 molecules of pyruvate, and two molecules of NADH. 24 Lysosomes Intracellular digestion. Packed with hydrolytic enzymes, lysosomes can hydrolyze proteins, fats, sugars, and nucleic acids. 25 Golgi apparatus Cell organelle that packages, processes, and distributes molecules from the ear throughout the cell 26 Vacuoles Membrane-enclosed structures, Plants have central vacuole that function as storage, waste disposal, protection, and hydrolysis. 27 Heterozygous Trait in an organism that contains different alleles 28 Homozygous Trait in an organism that contains identical alleles 29 Hypotonic Solution Has lower concentration of solutes than cytosol, so water enters cells faster than it leaves causing cells to swell and burst 30 Hypertonic Solution Has higher concentration of solutes than cytosol, so water moves out of cells faster than it moves causing cells to shrink 31 Interphase Stage of cell during which growth and DNA synthesis occur 32 Isotonic solution Concentration of solutes same on both sides of membrane, so water enters and exits at same rate and cells maintain normal shape and volume 33 Krebs cycle Series of reactions that occur in the mitochondrion during cellular respiration. For a single consumed glucose molecule, 2 ATP molecules, six molecules of carbon dioxide, and six NADH molecules are produced. 34 Meiosis * The special cell division that takes place in the gonads (the ovaries and the testes). In the process of meiosis, the chromosomes number is reduced from 46 to 23, so when the egg and the sperm unite in fertilization the zygote will have the correct number of chromosomes * Type of nuclear division that occurs as part of sexual reproduction; each daughter cell receives the haploid number of chromosomes 35 Messenger RNA (mRNA) Type of RNA formed from a template of DNA; this functions as a messenger form the original DNA helix in the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytosol or on the rough ER. Here the ribosomes act as the site of translation. 36 Metabolic pathway Series of linked chemical reactions; steps where reactions take place in a cell *Progressing from a standpoint of high energy to low energy. *All of the reactions are catalyzed by the use of enzymes. 37 Metaphase All of the chromosomes align along the metaphase plate or the center of the cell. 38 Metaphase plate Disk form during metaphase in which the chromosomes align in a equatorial plane of the cell 39 Mitosis * The process in which the DNA is duplicated and distributed evenly to two daughter cells * Type of cell division that produces two identical daughter cells; phases include prophase, pro metaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. 40 Mitochondria *Produce cell energy *Found in most eukaryotic cells and are the site of cellular respiration 41 Organelles Any of many cell "organs" or organized components 42 Phagocytosis Process in which cells engulf food particles through the cell membrane 43 Phospholipids Phosphate- containing fat molecule; forms the bilayer of a cell membrane. Consists of two fatty acids of varying length bonded to a phosphate group. The phosphate group is charged and therefore polar. 44 Photosynthesis Chemical process that converts light energy to synthesize carbohydrates. Consists of two separate stages. *The light reaction are those that convert solar energy to chemical energy. The cell accomplishes the production of ATP by absorbing light and using that energy to split a water molecule and transfer the electron, creating NADPH, and then producing ATP.These molecules are then used in the calvin cycle. *The sugar produced is polymerized and stored as a polymer of glucose. These sugars are consumed by organism or by the plant itself to produce energy by cellular respiration 45 Plasma Membrane Encloses and protects cell and contains functional protein such as enzymes that catalyze chemical reactions, receptors and bind ligands and regulate cellular activity, transporters that regulate what enters and exits cell, and cell identity markers 46 Prophase The chromosomes are visibly separate, and each duplicated chromosome has two noticeable sister chromatids. 47 Prometaphase The nuclear envelope begins to disappear, and the chromosomes begin to attach to the spindle that is forming along the axis of the cell 48 Ribosomes *Organelles that read the RNA produced in the nucleus and translate the genetic instructions to produce proteins. *Cells with a high rate of protein synthesis generally have large number of ribosomes. * Ribosomes are found in two locations, Bound are found in Er, and free are in the cytoplasm. The two are interchangeable and have identical structures. 49 Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) Nucleic acid found in both nucleus and cytoplasm of cell; occurs in three forms: mRNA, ribosomal RNA, and tRNA. It is used in transfer and as a messenger in most species of the genetic code. 50 Rough ER Section of endoplasmic reticulum that is covered with ribosomes; responsible for protein synthesis and membrane production 51 Smooth Er Section of the endoplasmic reticulum that lacks ribosomes; functions in detoxification and metabolism of multiple molecules. 52 Steroids Lipid that is a component of a cell membrane; many steroids are precursors to significant hormones. 53 Stop Codon Sequence of bases that terminates translation during protein synthesis 54 Telophase Chromosomes gather on either side of the now separating cell. 55 Transcription *An RNA strand complementary to the original strand of DNA is produced. The piece of genetic material produced is messenger RNA (mRNA) *Process during protein synthesis in which the DNA molecule is used as a template to form mRNA. The RNA strand has nitrogenous bases, identical to those in in DNA with the exception of uracil, which is substituted for thymine. 56 Transfer RNA (tRNA) RNA involved in protein synthesis; transfers a specific amino acid to the ribosomes and binds to mRNA 57 Water * The most significant aspect of water is the polarity of its bonds. It is the polar nature of water that allows for hydrogen bonding between molecules. *Water's high specific heat. This allows water to resist shifts in temperature. *Hydrogen bonding also results in cohesive and adhesive properties. Cohesion id the ability of a molecule to stay bonded or attracted to another molecule of the same substance. Adhesion is the ability of water to bond or attract other molecules or substances. *When water freezes it forms a lattice, which causes the molecules to spread apart, resulting in the phenomenon of floating. *Polarity of water also allows acts as a universal solvent. Water can be used to dissolve a number of different substances 58 Carbohydrates Are generally long chains, or polymers of sugars? They have many functions and serve many different purposes. The most important of these is storage, structure, and energy. 59 Biological molecules The most important molecules are Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic acids 60 Lipids Better known as fats, but specifically fatty acids, phospholipids, and steroids 61 Fatty Acids Vary greatly, but simply are grouped into two categories, saturated and unsaturated *Hydrocarbon tail of the fatty acids is nonpolar. Which is important in the function of cellular membranes. The molecules combine in a way that creates a barrier that protects a cell. 62 Saturated Fats *Contain no double bonds in their hydrocarbon tail * Solid *Those that the general public consider detrimental; cardiovascular problems are likely with diets that contain high quantities of saturated fats 63 Unsaturated Fats *One or more double bonds *Liquid at room temperature 64 Proteins *Most significant contributor to cellular function. *Polymers of 20 molecules called amino acids *Proteins are complex, consists of several structure types , and the largest of the biological molecules. *Enzymes are particular types of proteins that act to catalyze different reactions or processes. * Nearly all cellular function is catalyzed by some type of enzyme 65 Nucleic acids Components of the molecules of inheritance. DNA and RNA 66 Metabolism The sum of all chemical reactions that occur in an organism. In a cell, reactions take place in a series of steps called metabolic pathways. 67 Catabolism Phase of metabolism that involves breaking down complex chemical substances into smaller ones; = decomposition reactions 68 Anabolism Phases of metabolism that involves building complex chemical substances from smaller, simpler ones; = synthesis reactions 69 Prokaryotic cells Lack a defined nucleus and do not contain membrane-bound organelles. 70 Eukaryotic Cells Have a membrane-enclosed nucleus and a series of membrane-bound organelles that carry out the functions of the cell as directed by the nucleus. *More complex of the two cell types 71 Cellular Reproduction Cells reproduce by three different processes, all of which fall into two categories: sexual and asexual reproduction 72 Cellular Respiration *Two Catabolic pathways that lead to cellular energy production. As a simple combustion reaction, cellular respiration produces far more energy than does its anaerobic counterpart, fermentation. 73 Sexual reproduction The off spring originates from a single cell, yielding all cells produced to be identical. * Two cells contribute genetic material to the daughter cells, resulting in greater variation. 74 In the hierarchic system of classification, what is the least inclusive? Species 75 A molecule of water is bonded with another molecule of water by what type of bond? Hydrogen 76 Selectively Permeable Allows free passage of many lipid-soluble molecules but selectively controls crossing of ions or polar substances through transporter proteins 77 Passive transport Substances uses its own kinetic energy to move down concentration or electrochemical gradient across membrane until it reaches equilibrium (equal on both sides) does not require energy 78 Simple Diffusion Allows passage of nonpolar substances 79 Facilitated Diffusion Allows passage of larger and highly polar/ charged substances via transports proteins 80 Active Transport Energy- requiring process in which transport proteins move solutes across membrane (up) its concentration gradient. 81 Ionic Bond The force that binds a cation to an ion 82 Covalent Bond Two atoms share electrons, generally in pairs, one from each atom. 83 Cell The basic unit of life and the building block of tissues and organs. 84 Hydrogen Bond A weak attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom on one molecule and a slightly negative oxygen or nitrogen atom on another molecule, or between such atoms on different parts of the same molecule; responsible for the cohesion of water and coiling of protein and DNA molecules, for example 85 How do phospholipids function in cells? They are integral components of the plasma membrane 86 Proteins are polymers of what? Amino acids 87 Which of the biological molecules are considered the most significant contributor to cellular function? Proteins 88 Lipids are better known as fats, but what are they specifically Fatty acids, Phospholipids, steroids 89 Polysaccharide Polymer of simple sugars; glycogen, starch, cellulose 90 Atom The basic building block of a molecule that contains a nucleus and orbits 91 Monosaccharides A simple sugar, or sugar monomer, chiefly glucose, fructose, and GA lactose. 92 What protein catalyze different reactions or processes? Enzyme 93 Which of the biological molecules are components of the molecules inheritance? Nucleic acid 94 Aerobic Organism or cells that require oxygen to sustain life 95 Anaerobic Organism or cell can function in low concentrations of oxygen (micro- aerobic) and some organisms exist where no oxygen is present 96 Ionic Bond Force of attraction that holds ions having opposite charges together 97 Isotope Different kinds of the same atom that vary in weight: for a given element, the number of protons remains the same, while the number of neutrons varies to make different isotopes 98 Scientific Method Data Results generated by conducting experimental tests 99 Scientific Method Experiment Implementation of scientific materials and methods designed to test a hypothesis (should include a control group and experimental group) 100 Scientific Method Conclusion Statements based on analysis of test results that discuss evidence to support or reject the hypothesis 101 Scientific Method Hypothesis Potential testable explanation for a phenomenon, based on observations and prior knowledge and experience 102 Scientific Method Observation Use of senses to notice and study a phenomenon 103 Molecule A group of stomps bonded together 104 Scientific Theory Widely accepted concepts based on extensive experimental evidence 105 Element One type of atom [Show Less]
HESI A2 BIOLOGY (Definitions, Questions and Answers) 100% Correct. In the hierarchic system of classification, which of the following is the least inclu... [Show More] sive? Species After observing an event, you develop an explanation. This statement is referred to as which of the following? Hypothesis A molecule of water is bonded with another molecule of water by what type of bond? Hydrogen Which of the following is a benefit of the intermolecular hydrogn bonding of water? Water has a relatively high specific heat value Water has strong cohesive and adhesive properties Polarity of water allows it to act as a versatile solvent Of all the molecules that are significant to biology, which of the following are considered the most important? Carbohydrates, lipids, protein, and nucleic acids Lipids are better known as fats, but what are they specifically? Fatty acids Phospholipids Steroids What are the two categories of fatty acids? Saturated fats and unsaturated fats How do phospholipids function in cells? They are integral components of the plasma membrane Which of the biologic molecules are considered the most significant contributor to cellular function? Proteins Proteins are polymers of which of the following? Amino acids Which of the following proteins catalyze different reactions or processes? Enzyme Which of the biologic molecules are components of the molecules of inheritance? Nucleic acids What is the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in an organism? Metabolism In a cell, reactions take place in a series of steps called: Metabolic pathways What is the fundamental unit of biology? Cell Which type of cell contains no defined nucleus? Prokaryotic cell What is the primary purpose of the flagella on the surface of cells? Movement of the cell Which cell organelle functions to transport materials from the endoplasmic reticulum throughout the cell? Golgi apparatus Which of the following are the distinct organelles that produce cell energy? Mitochondrion and chloroplast Which component of the cell contributes to the protection, communication, and passage of substances into and out of the cell? Cell membrane The cell membrane consists of a bilayer of phospholipids with proteins, cholesterol, and glycoproteins. This bilayer creates a hydrophobic region between two layers of lipids, making it which of the following? Selectively permeable What are the two catabolic pathways that lead to cellular energy production? Fermentation and cellular respiration What is the first step in the conversion of glucose to pyruvate? Glycolysis Which step in cellular respiration yields the greatest amount of ATP? Electron Transport Chain During cell respiration, the conversion of glucose results in an overall production of how many ATP molecules? 32-36 What is the function of water in photosynthesis? Supply electrons in the light reactions Cells reproduce by different processes, all of which fall into what two categories? Sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction Which of the following describes how a bacterium reproduces? Binary fission Regarding mitosis and cytokinesis, one difference between higher plants and animals is that in plants: A cell plate begins to form at telophase, whereas in animals a cleavage furrow is initiated at that stage During which phase of cell reproduction does the cell divide forming two separate identical cells? Cytokinesis How does meiosis differ from mitosis? In meiosis, each of the daughter cells contains half as many chromosomes as the parent At which phase of meiosis does crossing over occur? Prophase 1 A cell division occurs in a human. The resulting cells contain 23 chromosomes. This is a description of gametes formed by which process? Meiosis If you wanted to determine the probability of a genotype, which of the following would you use? Punnett square Which of the following terms is used to describe the appearance of the organism? Phenotype What is the probability that a recessive trait would be expressed in offspring if two parents who are both heterozygous for the desired trait were crossed? 25% Because genetics is the study of heredity, many human disorders can be determined by studying a person's chromosomes or by creating which of the following? Pedigree Why is DNA important for metabolic activities of the cell? It controls the synthesis of enzymes During protein synthesis, what process uses an RNA strand to produce a complementary strand of DNA? Transcription During the process of transcription, a sequence of RNA is generated in which the RNA base cytosine (C) is inserted complementary to the DNA base guanine (G). Which RNA base is inserted complementary to the DNA base thymine (T)? Adenine Why is polarity the most important characteristic of water? The results of the polarity are hydrogen bonding, a high specific heat value, and its versatile solvent properties. Athletes are often concerned with the question of what they need in their diets to increase muscle mass and strength. What biological molecule would you recommend that would accomplish this? Proteins Which organelle would you expect to be present in a cell responsible for detoxifying multiple molecules? Smooth ER (endoplasmic reticulum) A cell from heart muscle would more than likely contain an unusual high proportion of: Mitochondria Which part of cellular respiration produces the greatest amount of ATP? Electron Transport Chain When plants do not receive enough water their photosynthetic rated drops. This is because: Water is a raw material for the light reactions in photosynthesis Which of the following statements is true about the Krebs cycle and the Calvin cycle? Both result in a net production of ATP and NADH Why is it important for cells to undergo mitosis? Mitosis produces cells for growth and repair of body tissue 72 Chromosomes undergo meiosis. How many chromosomes will be in each gamete? 36 Which of the following shows how information is transformed to make a protein? DNA-RNA-protein What is the typical result of mitosis in humans? two diploid cells How does water affect the temperate of a living thing Water keeps temperature stable What are the products to kreb cycle? Carbon dioxide, ATP, and energy carriers What kind of none connects sugar and phosphate in DNA Covalent bonds What is the second part of an organism;s scientific name? Species How are lipids different that other organic molecules? They are not water soluble What is a cohesive property? Water is attracted to water What is adhesive property? Water is attracted to other substance Which hormone is produced by the pineal gland? Melatonin What is the name of the organelle that organizes protein synthesis? Ribosome During which phase is the chromosome number reduced from diploid to haploid Meiosis I What is the name for a cell that does not contain a nucleus? Prokaryote What is the name of the physical presentation of an organism's genes? Phenotype Which of the following forms of water is the densest? Liquid What is the longest phase in the life of a cell? Interphase What is not found in bacterial cell? Mitochondria What kind of macromolecule is hemoglobin? Proteins Which of the following is not involved in translation? RNA, mRNA, ribosome, DNA DNA Which of the following is necessary for cell diffusion Water How many different types of nucleotides are there in DNA? 4 (cytosine, guanine, adenine, thyamine) Which of the following cell types has no nucleus Red blood cells Which part of the aerobic respiration uses oxygen? Electron transport chain What is the most general taxonomic category? Kingdom What is the name of the process by which a bacterial cell splits into two new cells? Binary fission Name the taxonomical classification of living things, in order of increasing specificity. Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species Name the 5 biological kingdom monera, protista, fungi, plantae, animalia Name the hierarchal levels of life from simplest to more complex Atoms--> molecules--> organelles--> cells--> tissues--> organs--> organisms --> population --> community--> biosphere What is the lowest level of organization with all the properties of life? Cells What are the three domains of living organisms? Bacteria, Archea, Eukarya Phospholipid bilayer has head and tail Hydrophilic (polar); hydrophophobic (nonpolar) Cytoplasm Semifluid "soup" of proteins, enzymes, dissolved salts, sugars. All the organelles and the nucleus float in the cytoplasm Nucleus Contains chromatin: a combination of DNA and associated proteins Nucleolus an area where synths of ribosomal genes rRNA takes place Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Sorts and modifies protein chains delivered by bound ribosomes Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Lacks ribosome; site of lipid synthesis Golgi Body Connects with the smooth ER, completes lipid synthesis and sorters proteins to their correct destination in small vesicles Vesicles Transport proteins and lipid to the cell surface; bring proteins and lipids into cells from the cell surface, digest compounds Lysosomes Intracellular digestion; contain a potent brew of digestive enzymes Peroxisomes Break down fatty acids, amino acids, alcohol Mitochondria A double membrane bound organelle that makes ATP for cellular energy Chloroplast Plants only; a double membrane- bound organelle that makes sugar from sunlight and CO2 during photosynthesis Cytoskeleton Provides cell shape Cell Wall A tough rigid structure made up of cellulose chitin What organelle is responsible for protein synthesis? Ribosome Why is yeast used to make bread rise? Yeast carries out fermentation, producing ethanol and carbon dioxide How is mitosis different from meiosis? Meiosis creates cells with half the chromosomes of the parent cell A cell is in a solution in which the concentration of the solutes is higher inside the cell than outside the cell. What would you expect to happen to the cell? It will swell and possibly burst What is the phloem tissue in plant stems? It conducts the energy of light to leaves Physical factors such temperature and pH can alter enzyme activity because they have an effect on the enzyme's . Shape What kind of symbiosis exists between a pneumonia bacterium and a human? Parasitism Beeswax is an example of what kind of molecule Lipid In which phase of cell division do the chromosome replicate Interphase What happens to glucose during glycolysis? It splits into molecules of pyretic acid How do RNA and DNA derive their names? From the sugar each contains If a bacteria are placed in a strong solution of salt water, they will shrink as water moves out of the bacteria. What is this process called? Osmosis What does an enzyme do? Speeds up chemical reaction Two organisms live in a relationship from which both benefit. What is this called? Mutualism Which structure is found in protists but not in monerans? Golgi apparatus Rod shaped bacteria Bacilli Spiral shaped bacteria spirilla Round shaped bacteria Cocci What is the term for the breakdown of glycogen into glucose subunits? Hydrolysis Hydrolysis The chemical breakdown of a compound due to reactions with water Anabolism Synthesis from simple to complex molecules Catabolism Break down of complex molecules to simpler molecules Which organelle provides storage space for the cell? Vacuole What is a byproduct of fermentation in muscle cells? Lactic acid Telophase Phase of mitosis in which new nuclear membranes form around sets of chromosomes Names a final step in protein synthesis Amino acid bonds Foods with a high salt content do not have to be refrigerated. What natural process prevents these foods from spoiling? Osmosis What is necessary for active transport through a membrane to take place? ATP What are saturated fats saturated with? Hydrogen atoms How many pairs of homologous chromosomes do humans have? 23 What happens to mRNA as it reached the cytoplasm? It attaches to a ribosome [Show Less]
HESI A2 BIOLOGY (100 Questions and Answers) 1. Which movement requires carrier protein but no direct cellular energy? Facilitated transport 2. Which ... [Show More] term denotes the movement of glucose molecules from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration? Active transport 3. Plasmolysis is a term describing? Cellular shrinkage, which occurs when cells are immersed in hypertonic solurion 4. The movement of substances from lesser concentration to higher concentration is called? Active transport 5. Which particular structure is present in both eucaryotic and prokaryotic cells? Cell membrane 6. Plant cells differ from animal cells in? The plant cells have a cell wall and animal cells do not 7. Which cell type is characterized by the lack of true nucleus and the absence of membrane-bound organelle? Prokaryotic cell 8. Which organelle is associated with hydrolytic enzymes and is sometimes reffered to as a "suicide bag" Lysosomes 9. Pinocytosis is the process of? Enclosing a liquid substance in a membrane and secreting it into the cell 10. The plasma membrane of the eurokaryotic cell determines selectively which substances can enter and leave the cell. Such a membrane is said to be ? Selectively permeable 11. What primarily determines the shape of cells that lack cell walls? Microtubule and microfilaments 12. Which pair of organelles is responsible foe energy supply to eurokaryotic cells? Chloroplast and mitochondria 13. Whit which organelle is the synthesis of ATP associated? Mitochondrion 14. The plasma membrane is soluble to? Lipids 15. The process whereby muscle cell produce lactic acid is called? Fermentation 16. During aerobic respiration, which one of the following substances is released? 36ATP 17. Noncyclic-photophosphorylation takes place inside the? Thylakoids 18. The dark reaction of photosynthesis takes place in ? Stroma 19. Aerobic cellular respiration is more important to sustaining life than anaerobic because it produces? More energy 20. Which organelle is responsible for oxygen production? Chloroplast 21. An organic catalyst that enhances the chemical reaction is called ? An enzyme 22. The first stage of aerobic cellular respiration is? Glycolysis 23. Glycolysis occurs in the ? Cytoplasm 24. For the aerobic pathway, electron transport systems are located in the ? Mitochondrion 25. Codominance occurs when? Both the alleles in a heterozygote are expressed phenotypically in a individual 26. Mitosis in a single human cell usually results in the formation of ? 2 diploid cells 27. Meiosis in a single human cell usually results in the formation of ? 4 haploid cells 28. If you reproduce sexually, you produce gamets via? Meiosis 29. If you reproduce asexually, you produce offspring via? Mitosis 30. What type of allele is expressed in the phenotype of only a homozygous individual? Dominant 31. The sex of a human child is determined by the sex chromosome from? The father 32. Cell division occurs most rapidly in? Cancerous tissue 33. Which blood type would be a universal donor? O 34. Passage of water through the membrane of a cell is called ? Osmosis 35. Which term includes all others? Organism 36. The kreb cycle produces? CO2 and H2 37. The presence of which substance is most important for all cell activity ? Water 38. The basic structure of a cell membranes is a ? Protein-impregnated phospholipid bilayer 39. Cytoplasmic structures that contain powerful hydrolysis enzymes, which could lead to cell destruction in the absence of surrounding membranes, are? Lysosomes 40. Organic substances made up of several amino acids bound together are? Proteins 41. The smallest known microorganisms are? Viruses 42. The end product of protein metabolism is ? Amino acids 43. Carbohydrates are absorbed into the blood as ? Glucose 44. The substance basic to life is? Proteins 45. The body obtains most of its nitrogen from ? Proteins 46. The basic unit of living organism is ? Cell 47. The diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane is known as ? Osmosis 48. The process in which carbon dioxide and water are combined under the influence of light in green plants is called ? Photosynthesis 49. A protein substance that initiates and accelerates a chemical reaction is called ? Enzyme 50. Amino acids that cannot be manufactured by the body are called ? Essential amino acids 51. The body's continual response to changes in the external and internal enviroment is called ? Homeostasis 52. The ability of a cell to reproduce is called ? Mitosis 53. The part of the cell necessary for reproduction is the ? Nucleus 54. Proteins are polymers of ? Amino acids 55. In cellular metabolism glycolysis ? Does not require O2 56. Cellular proteins are synthesized in ? Ribosomes 57. In eukaryotic cells, the phase of division that produces two daughter cells is ? Cytokinesis 58. Some substances are transported across cell membranes by proteins known as ? Permeases 59. The cellular organelle where respiratory reactions for the release of energy occurs is a ? Mitochondrion 60. The most efficient cellular respiratiry process, in terms of energy-yield per molecule of glucose, is ? Aerobic respiration 61. A cellular organelle found in typical plant cells but not in typical animal cells is the ? Chloroplast 62. Every cell contains ? A cell membrane and cytoplasm 63. The two organic substances present in chromosomes are ? Protein and nucleic acid 64. Genes may be defined as ? Functional segments of chromosomes 65. The dense mass of ribonucleic acid found within the nucleus is the ? Nucleolus 66. The endoplasmic reticulum may be described as a ? Series of membranes in the cell's cytoplasm 67. The lysosomes of a cell contain many ? Digestive enzyme 68. The mitochondria of the cell are best known as the organelles where ? Energy is released from food molecules 69. The flagella of human cells cause ? Cell movement 70. During the process of diffusion Molecules moves from a region of high concentrarion to one of low concentration 71. The plasma membrane is a semipermeable membrane because it ? Lets only certain molecules through 72. In active transport, chemical substances move from a region of low concentrationto one of high concentration, and therefore they require ? An expediture of energy 73. Phagocytosis is a form of endocytosis in which? The cell takes particulate matter into itself 74. Virtually all chemical reactions of the cell are catalyzed by ? Enzymes 75. The energy is released from an ATP molecule when ? The terminal phosphate group is released 76. Interphase is the phase of a cell cycle in which ? The cell performes its unique functions 77. Chromatids, chromosomes, and chromatin are all simillar to one another because ? All contains DNA 78. The codon is a three-base group of nucleotides that specifies ? An amino acid 79. Protein synthesis in the cell could not occur in the absence of ? Amino acid molecules 80. A molecules of messenger RNA contains ? Exons but no introns 81. Which of the following is the structure of the male reproductive system that stores spermatozoa during the maturation process? A) vas deferens B) scrotum C) epididymis D) testicular artery 82. Which of the following types of hormones stimulates a chemical response to a target cell by diffusing through the cell membrane to bind to the receptors inside the cell? A) fat-soluble hormones B) amino acid derivatives C) hydrophilic hormones D) water-soluble hormones 83. Which of the following is an example of human error in an experiment? A) an imperfectly calibrated scale B) contaminating a sterile sample by breathing on it C) a draft in the laboratory slightly changing the temperature of a liquid D) failure to account for wind speed when measuring distance traveled 84. Within the biologic hierarchic system of organization, which of the following is least inclusive? A) phylum B) order C) kingdom D) species 85. In the scientific process, which of the following is a statement or explanation of certain events or happenings? A) hypothesis B) observation C) experiment D) conclusion 86. Why is polarity the most important characteristic of water? A) the results of the polarity are hydrogen bonding, a high specific heat value, and its versatile solvent properties B) the results of the polarity are covalent bonding, a low specific heat value, and its versatile solvent properties C) the results of the polarity are ionic bonding, a high specific heat value, and its versatile solvent properties D) the results of the polarity are hydrogen bonding, a low specific heat value, and its versatile solvent properties the results of the polarity are hydrogen bonding, a high specific heat value, and its versatile solvent properties 87. Athletes are often concerned with the question of what they need in their diets to increase muscle mass and strength. What biologic molecule would you recommend that would accomplish this? A) carbohydrates B) proteins C) lipids D) nucleic acids 88. Which organelle would you expect to be present in a cell responsible for detoxifying multiple molecules? A) rough er B) smooth er C) lysosome D) golgi apparatus 89. A cell from heart muscle would more than likely contain an unusually high proportion of: A) lysosomes B) mitochondria C) mRNA D) ribosomes 90. The sum of all chemical reactions that occur in an organism is: A) product B) respiration C) metabolism D) synthesis 91. A cell that does not contain membrane-bound organelles or a defined nucleus would be classified as: A) eukaryotic B) embryonic C) prokaryotic D) symbiotic 92. The two catabolic pathways that lead to cellular energy production are: A) fermentation and protein synthesis B) cellular respiration and glycolysis C) fermentation and glycolysis D) cellular respiration and fermentation 93. Which part of cellular respiration produces the greatest amount of ATP? A) electron transport chain B) glycolysis C) citric acid cycle D) fermentation 94. When plants do not receive enough water, their photosynthetic rate drops. This is because: A) water is a raw material for the light reactions in photosynthesis B) carbon dioxide is not available C) water provides the carbon atoms used to make sugar D) not enough oxygen is produced to keep fermentation running 95. How does asexual reproduction differ from sexual reproduction? A) asexual reproduction results in all cells being identical to the original cell; sexual reproduction results in half of the cells being identical to the original cell B) asexual reproduction results in two cells that contribute genetic material to daughter cells, resulting in significantly greater variation C) sexual reproduction involves two cells that contribute genetic material to daughter cells, resulting in significantly greater variation D) sexual reproduction involves one cell that yields all cells produced to be identical 96. Why is it important for cells to undergo mitosis? A) mitosis allows for reproduction with male and female gametes B) mitosis increases variation within the species C) mitosis produces cells that are different from the parent cell D) mitosis produces cells for growth and repair of body tissue 97. 72 chromosomes undergo meiosis. How many chromosomes will be in each gamete? A) 18 B) 36 C) 72 D) 144 98. Which of the following shows how information in transformed to make a protein? A) DNA-RNA-protein B) gene-chromosome-protein C) ATP-amino acid-protein D) RNA-DNA-protein 99. Which of the following describes the gene in which one allele takes a different form from another? A) phenotype B) heterozygous C) homolog D) homozygous [Show Less]
Question Answer Matter that has a definite shape and volume solid Matter that changes in volume with changes in temperature and pressure gas A cha... [Show More] nge of matter is when no change is made to the chemical composition of a substance. physical Simplest of substances and is represented by a letter or letters element Law that states matter can neither be created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction Law of conservation of mass The breaking of bonds and reforming of new bonds to create new chemical compounds with different chemical formulas and different chemical properties Chemical reaction 5 main chemical reactions synthesis, decomposition, combustion, single replacement, double replacement Chemical reaction in which 2 elements combine to form a product synthesis Chemical reaction that is the breaking of a compound into component parts decomposition The chemical reaction that is the reaction of a compound with oxygen combustion Chemical reaction that consists of an active metal reaction with an ionic compound creating a new compound single replacement Chemical reaction involving 2 ionic compounds; the reactant yields "switched partners" double replacement how elements are arranged on the periodic table by their chemical properties Number that represents the # of protons an atomic number element has average of the masses of each of its isotopes as they occur in nature atomic mass Mass number - atomic number = # of neutrons in an element Columns of the periodic table = groups Rows of the periodic table = periods Group IA = charge +1 Group IIA = charge +2 Group IIIA = charge +3 Group VA = charge -3 Group VIA = charge -2 Group VIIA = charge -1 Charge of noble gases 0 Positively charged ions protons Negatively charged ions electrons Neutral ions neutrons # of proteins in an element = atomic number proteins + neutrons = mass number In reactions, atoms try to reach stable electron configurations. chemical reactions take place in the nucleus, to obtain stable nuclear configurations. nuclear Word used to describe the emission of particles from an unstable nucleus. radioactivity The particles that are emitted during radioactivity radiation 3 types of radiation alpha, beta, gamma Radiation that is the emission of helium ions alpha Alpha radiation particles have a charge of +2 How can penetration from alpha particles be stopped? piece of paper Radiation that is a product of the decomposition of a neutron. It is composed of high-speed, high- energy electrons. beta radiation How can beta radiation particles be stopped? aluminum foil radiation is high-energy electromagnetic radiation that lacks charge and mass. gamma What radiation can be stopped by several feet of concrete or several inches of lead? gamma radiation 2 types of chemical bonding ionic & covalent What bond is an electrostatic attraction between 2 oppositely charged ions? (between metals & nonmetals) ionic A single bond is formed when 2 atoms share a pair of electrons. covalent A bond is formed when 2 electron pairs are shared. double covalent A bond is formed when 3 electron pairs are shared. triple covalent What is the strongest type of chemical bond? What is it formed by? covalent bond; non-metals In a covalent bond compound, if the electrons are shared equally, then the bond is . non-polar If electrons are not shared equally in a covalent bond, the bond is . polar is based on the difference in electronegativity values for the elements involved polarity Hydrogen bonding, dipole interactions and dispersion forces. intermolecular forces Bond that is the attraction for a hydrogen atom by a highly electronegative element. hydrogen bond Elements fluorine, chlorine, oxygen and nitrogen are generally involved in a bond. hydrogen Bond that is the strongest of the intermolecular forces hydrogen The attractions of one dipole for another dipole interactions A is created when an electron pair in a covalent bond is shared unequally dipole A dipole attraction is a intermolecular force. weak The weakest of all intermolecular forces. dispersion forces Dispersion forces are typically found in covalent compounds. Non-polar 6.02 x 10^23 is a mole The mass of one mole of a substance atomic mass The part of chemistry that deals with the quantities and numeric relationships between compounds in a chemical reaction. stoichiometry To balance an equation, are placed in front of each component. coefficient 4 ways to increase the reaction rate increase temperature, increase surface area, increase concentrations and reactants and add a catalyst Increasing the causes the particles to have greater kinetic energy, allowing them to move faster and have a greater chance temperature Accelerates a reaction by reducing the activation energy, or the amount of energy needed for a reaction to occur. catalyst reaction involve the transfer of electrons from one element to another redox The loss of electrons oxidation The gain of electrons reduction Sum of oxidation #'s = The charge on polyatomic ions Compounds acting as hydrogen-ion donors acids Compounds acting a hydrogen-ion acceptor bases pH value less that 7.0; taste sour/tart; produce h30+ (most of their formulas begin with H) acids Produce OH-; taste is bitter, feels slippery; conduct electricity; formulas contain OH-, pH value is greater than 7.0 bases What characterizes a chemical reaction as combustion? adding O2 What is the change of potassium in KCl? +1 because K is found in group IA How many electrons does an oxygen ion have 10 (it has an atomic # of 8 and is in group VIA, which has a -2 charge, which means it has 2 more electrons than he 8 protons). How many neutrons does an atom of carbon -14 contain? 8 (take the mass #-atomic # = neutrons) 14-6=8 What is the strongest type of chemical bond? covalent bond What is the mass of one mole of CO2? 44g/mol (C=12.011 + (15.999 x 2) = answer) How many moles are present in 2 moles of O2? 1.204 x 10^24 (1 mole - 6.02 x 10^23, 2 mole would be double that) What would be the oxidation state of the sulfur atom in sulfuric acid, H2SO4? +6 [Show Less]
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