BSC 2346 Module 2,3,4,6,7,8 Complete Course Solution - $18.45 Add To Cart
BSC 2346 A&P Case Study Module 2 Complete Solution A&P Case Study Module 2 QUESTION 1 Alyssa is a 74-year-old female patient who presents to her prima... [Show More] ry care provider for a routine physical. She states that she feels “quite healthy” and has no complaints other than mild back pain. She has a family history of various cancers, diabetes, and osteoporosis, so she knows that it is important to stay active and keep up with screenings and annual physical exams. Alyssa’s provider finds that she has lost 10 pounds since last year’s exam. She is almost a full inch shorter, as well. Alyssa’s provider suspects that she may have osteoporosis. Which other two factors would support that other diagnosis? Taking calcium supplements and intense daily exercise Family history of cancer and obesity Weight loss and history of surgery A history of smoking and being post-menopausal QUESTION 2 Explain, in your own words, how Alyssa’s loss of height could be related to her possible osteoporosis diagnosis. When a person has osteoporosis, they typically do not have any signs or symptoms until a fracture happens. Over time, the bones in someone that has osteoporosis start to deteriorate due to losing bone density faster than it can be replaced. In result, individuals tend to become shorter over time and have more frequent bone fractures (Department of Health and Human Services, 2019). Reference https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/osteoporosis QUESTION 3 Alyssa’s provider orders a DEXA scan. Which of the following T-score outcomes would indicate a diagnosis of osteoporosis? -1.4 +1.2 -2.6 0 QUESTION 4 Why might Alyssa’s provider ask her about her diet? Provide two reasons and explain how they are related to osteoporosis. One reason Alyssa’s provider may ask her about her diet is because, a balanced diet is very much connected to bone growth as well as overall health. Making sure that you are getting enough Vitamin D and Calcium in your diet throughout the day is extremely important in maintaining your bone health which will keep the osteoporosis at bay (International Osteoporosis Foundation, 2017). Another reason is that if she is not eating correctly or getting enough of the needed vitamins and calcium, he can educate her on what she needs to do outside of the doctor’s office to keep the osteoporosis from progressing too rapidly. Reference https://www.iofbonehealth.org/nutrition [Show Less]
BSC 2346 A&P Case Study Module 3 Complete Solution QUESTION 1 Alyssa is a 74-year-old female patient who presents to her primary care provider for a rout... [Show More] ine physical. She states that she feels “quite healthy” and has no complaints other than mild back pain. She has a family history of various cancers, diabetes, and osteoporosis, so she knows that it is important to stay active and keep up with screenings and annual physical exams. Alyssa’s provider finds that she has lost 10 pounds since last year’s exam. She is almost a full inch shorter, as well. Alyssa’s provider suspects that she may have osteoporosis. Which other two factors would support that other diagnosis? Taking calcium supplements and intense daily exercise Family history of cancer and obesity Weight loss and history of surgery A history of smoking and being post-menopausal QUESTION 2 Explain, in your own words, how Alyssa’s loss of height could be related to her possible osteoporosis diagnosis. When a person has osteoporosis, they typically do not have any signs or symptoms until a fracture happens. Over time, the bones in someone that has osteoporosis start to deteriorate due to losing bone density faster than it can be replaced. In result, individuals tend to become shorter over time and have more frequent bone fractures (Department of Health and Human Services, 2019). Reference https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/osteoporosis QUESTION 3 Alyssa’s provider orders a DEXA scan. Which of the following T-score outcomes would indicate a diagnosis of osteoporosis? -1.4 +1.2 -2.6 0 QUESTION 4 Why might Alyssa’s provider ask her about her diet? Provide two reasons and explain how they are related to osteoporosis. One reason Alyssa’s provider may ask her about her diet is because, a balanced diet is very much connected to bone growth as well as overall health. Making sure that you are getting enough Vitamin D and Calcium in your diet throughout the day is extremely important in maintaining your bone health which will keep the osteoporosis at bay (International Osteoporosis Foundation, 2017). Another reason is that if she is not eating correctly or getting enough of the needed vitamins and calcium, he can educate her on what she needs to do outside of the doctor’s office to keep the osteoporosis from progressing too rapidly. Reference https://www.iofbonehealth.org/nutrition QUESTION 5 Explain how the body controls calcium levels in the bones and blood. Be sure to describe the roles of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin in detail. Blood calcium levels are regulated by PTH, PTH is generated by the parathyroid glands (LibreTexts, 2019). PTh is released whenever blood calcium levels are low, it stimulates osteoclasts to break down the bone to allow the release of calcium into the blood. Once released PTH increases blood calcium levels by enhancing the amount of calcium being reabsorbed by the kidneys before being excreted in the urine (LibreTexts, 2019). PTH triggers calcitriol formation which in turn “increases absorption of dietary calcium through the intestines” (LibreTexts, 2019). On the other side of things, calcitonin does the opposite of PTH. Calcitonin is also produced by the thyroid but inhibits osteoclasts and activates osteoblasts and increases calcium in the urine through the kidneys (LibreTexts, 2019). Calcitonin is very important in children because it stimulates bone growth, in pregnancy it reduces maternal bone loss, and in prolonged starvation it lessens bone mass loss (LibreTexts, 2019). Reference https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Introductory_and_General_Biology/Book%3A_General_Biology_(Boundless)/37%3A_The_Endocrine_System/37.3%3A_Regulation_of_Body_Processes/37.3D%3A_Hormonal_Control_of_Blood_Calcium_Levels QUESTION 6 Alyssa has been prescribed several medications over the past two decades for various reasons. Which of the following may have had an impact on developing osteoporosis? Antibiotics Cholesterol-lowering statins Steroid medication Over-the-counter antacid medication QUESTION 7 1. Alyssa’s doctor recommends that she increase her calcium intake. List at least five foods that have high calcium content. Collard greens; 360mg of calcium, Sardines (canned with bones); 325mg of calcium, Broccoli rabe; 200mg of calcium, Salmon (canned with bones); 180mg of calcium, Kale; 180mg of calcium Reference https://www.nof.org/patients/treatment/calciumvitamin-d/a-guide-to-calcium-rich-foods/ QUESTION 8 1. Alyssa does some research on risk factors for osteoporosis and comes across the term “peak bone mass.” In your own words, explain what peak bone mass means and at which age it typically occurs. 2. Peak bone mass is the amount of bone a person will have during their life time. It typically occurs in early 20’s in females and late 20’s in males. Reference https://www.bones.nih.gov/health-info/bone/osteoporosis/bone-mass QUESTION 9 1. Which of the following choices has NOT been shown to cause a decrease in blood calcium levels? Caffeine Sodium Cannabis Alcohol QUESTION 10 1. If Alyssa does have osteoporosis, can she reverse its effects on her bone density? Explain why or why not. What is the best course of action she can take to keep her bones as healthy as possible? Osteoporosis cannot be reversed because by time you are diagnosed with osteoporosis you have already lost too much bone density (National Institute on Aging, 2017). Although you cannot reverse osteoporosis you can take action to prevent further damage and build stronger bones. The best action for Alyssa to take is to watch the food that she consumes, eat more dark green leafy foods, less sodium intake, and less dairy. It is also wise of her to stay active and stay aware of her body and changes that may happen (National Institute on Aging, 2017 Reference https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/osteoporosis QUESTION 11 Kaysee is a 14-year-old athlete who was injured during a basketball game. Another player fell on the lateral aspect of her right leg as her foot was pinned in place. She was taken by ambulance to the hospital after having her lower leg splinted on the court. She is in extreme pain and every bump in the road makes the pain worse. When the ambulance arrived at the hospital, the ER physician ordered x-rays. Based on the limited information you are given, which of the following bones is most likely injured? 1. Humerus Femur Metatarsals Tibia QUESTION 12 The x-ray shows that both lower leg bones have been fractured. There is no break in the skin tissue. Which of the following terms describes the type of fracture that has occurred? Compound Colles Greenstick Simple QUESTION 13 Kaysee has always been a fairly healthy child. She has no history of any major illness. However, her physician is surprised that she has sustained two fractured bones from a relatively mild trauma. List and describe three possible underlying conditions that would increase Kaysee’s risk of fracture. (Keep her age in mind.) Three possible underlying conditions could be osteogenesis imperfecta, rickets, and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Osteogenesis imperfecta is usually detected at birth and is also known as brittle bone disease. When a person has this disease their bones are soft, fracture easily, and are not formed normally. Osteogenesis imperfecta has 8 different types of the disease that range from mild to more severe (St. Louis Children’s Hospital, 2019). Rickets is a bone disease where the bones become soft and deformed over time which causes the individuals legs to bow and ankles to swell. Rickets occurs due to lack of vitamin D in the persons diet or not getting enough sunlight (St. Louis Children’s Hospital, 2019). Juvenile arthritis is caused by the child’s immune system attacking its healthy tissue. Due to this research has shown that children with JRA have a higher risk of bone fractures and higher risk of bone fractures after the age of 45 (Jennifer Freeman, MD, 2018). Reference https://www.stlouischildrens.org/conditions-treatments/metabolic-bone-disease https://www.rheumatoidarthritis.org/ra/juvenile/ QUESTION 14 The time required for healing a fracture depends on all of the following except: Patient’s age Type of fracture Casting Nutrition QUESTION 15 During bone healing, osteoclasts are by far the most active bone cells. True False QUESTION 16 Which of the following may diminish Kaysee’s body’s ability to heal her fracture? An increase in calcium intake Over-the-counter pain medications Her history of athletic activity Vitamin D supplements QUESTION 17 In your own words, describe the term “neoangiogenesis” and explain how it relates to fracture healing. Angiogenesis is responsible for creating blood vessels throughout the entire body, while Neogenesis creates new blood vessels that supply cancerous tumors to ensure they grow (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center 2002). Angiogenesis is necessary during the bone healing process because it provides new blood vessels which provides oxygen to the new callus that is forming. It also provides a path for inflammatory cells, cartilage, and bone cells to get to the fracture cite (Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center 2002). Reference https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC150863/ QUESTION 18 The first step in bone healing involves the formation of a: Soft callus Hemotoma Fibrous tissue Hard callous QUESTION 19 Considering Kaysee’s age, could this injury impact bone growth at her epiphyseal plates? Why or why not? Yes, it can because she is not done growing yet, the epiphyseal plates have not hardened into bone at her age. Because of this, it can cause the plates to harden early which can cause uneven limb growth or may end up slightly crocked in the future (Richard W. Kruse, DO and Susan M. Dubowy, PA-C, 2018). Reference https://kidshealth.org/en/parents/growth-plate-injuries.html QUESTION 20 Which of the following statements is true? Vascularization never returns to an injured bone site. Formation of a soft callus is the first step in bone repair. The soft callus is composed of elastic tissue and collagen fibers. A fibrocartilaginous callus is converted to bone tissue over time. [Show Less]
BSC 2346 A&P Case Study Module 4 Complete Solution QUESTION 1 Jordan is now 19-years old. As an infant, Jordan reached many gross motor skill milestones,... [Show More] such as holding his head up, rolling over, sitting, and standing, at normal times. However, he was considered a “late walker” because he took his first steps at 17 months. By 2 years old, his parents noticed a hyperlordotic posture while he was standing. A Gower's sign and Trendelenberg gait were noted by age four. Throughout his childhood, he suffered progressive muscle weakness, especially in the proximal musculature of the arms, pelvis, and legs. He required orthotic braces to assist his walking and was confined to wheelchair ambulation by age 13. At 16, he was hospitalized with bronchitis requiring antibiotic treatment, but recovered. Jordan has a history of progressive muscle weakness, but no history of muscle pain or spasm, chest pain, or irregular heartbeat. The only medications that he normally takes are calcium and fluoride supplements. Jordan has three siblings. His older and younger sisters have never had any major medical issues. Jordan’s older brother is also to a wheelchair with problems similar to Jordan's. No other immediate or distant family members have musculoskeletal issues. Jordan’s history aligns most closely with which diagnosis? 1. Multiple sclerosis Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Myotonic dystrophy Duchenne muscular dystrophy QUESTION 2 Jordan had a biopsy of the left gastrocnemius muscle when he was 5 years old. Based on your answer for his diagnosis, describe the microscopic pathological changes that the pathologist would have noted in her report. The pathologist would note changes in the skeletal muscle fibers, a lack of dystrophin which is the protein that holds muscle cells together. The pathologist would also note the rapid growth of connective tissue around the decline of muscle fibers (Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 1972). Reference https://europepmc.org/backend/ptpmcrender.fcgi?accid=PMC494103&blobtype=pdf QUESTION 3 Explain, in your own words, why Jordan’s brother appears to have the same disease and why his sisters are unaffected. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is most common in males due to males having only one X chromosome. If their only X chromosome has the DMD trait then they will have DMD because they do not have a backup X chromosome (National Human Genome Research Institute, 2013). For females DMD is not as common but females are normally the carriers for the DMD trait. DMD is not common in females due to them having two X chromosomes so if one X chromosome is affected by the DMD trait than the second X chromosome acts as a backup in releasing dystrophin protein (National Human Genome Research Institute, 2013). Reference https://www.genome.gov/Genetic-Disorders/Duchenne-Muscular-Dystrophy QUESTION 4 Jordan’s calves appear enlarged. Which of the following statements explains this phenomenon? As his muscles degenerate, the muscle tissue is replaced by collagen and adipose tissue. As Jordan ages, the neuromuscular junction loses its neurotransmitters. Jordan’s muscle cells are experiencing calcification because the actin and myosin filaments are no longer able to release from each other. As his muscle degenerate, calcium replaces the water in the muscle cells. QUESTION 5 Jordan displayed Gower’s sign at a young age. Which of the following statements explains why this this true? The weakness of his proximal leg muscles and erector spinae muscles force Jordan to use his arms to push on the floor. His neuromuscular junctions were interrupting the signals to contract his muscles. Jordan’s quadriceps and gluteus maximus are in spasm, which causes him to fall to his knees when trying to stand. The chronic contractures in Jordan’s lower legs cause him to be reliant on his upper body for strength. QUESTION 6 Weakness in his erector spinae muscles forces Jordan to assume which exaggerated position when standing? Cervical hyperlordosis Thoracic hyperkyphosis Scoliosis Lumbar hyperlordosis QUESTION 7 In your own words, please explain why Jordan must take calcium supplements for the rest of his life. (Hint: Think about your prior material and Wolff’s law.) Jordan has to take calcium supplements for the rest of his life because muscular dystrophy will cause him to lose bone mass over the years which in turn will put him at a great risk for bone fractures in his long bones as well as spine (Bonekey Rep, 2012). Reference https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3727795/ QUESTION 8 Jordan is prone to respiratory infections, in part because of the weakness of which muscles? Pectoralis major and pectoralis minor Diaphragm and abdominal wall muscles Serratus anterior and scalene muscles Hyoid muscles QUESTION 9 Genetic testing would reveal that Jordan has a y-linked disorder. True False QUESTION 10 In your own words, briefly describe the role of dystrophin within the motor unit. Dystrophin is a protein that is needed to strengthen the muscle fibers in order to prevent injury when the muscles contract and relax. Dystrophin is found within the muscle cells, if there is not enough dystrophin this causes muscle tears. Reference https://www.duchenne.com/importance-of-dystrophin QUESTION 11 Colette has been experiencing some muscle pain and soreness after workouts this last week. She decides to research how muscles work because she wants to find ways to help alleviate her pain. She is hoping to find out the names of the muscles that are aching and find ways to stretch and strengthen them. Answer the following questions to help her find the answers she is looking for. Colette has been sore “all over,” but her primary area of concern is the posterior right thigh. Which of the following muscles could be causing the soreness in this region? 1. Biceps femoris Vastus lateralis Rectus femoris Peroneus longus QUESTION 12 Colette has played softball for over 20 years and has been told in the past that she may have a rotator cuff injury. Which of the following rotator cuff muscles is on the anterior aspect of the scapula? Subscapularis Teres minor Infraspinatus Supraspinatus QUESTION 13 Colette is trying to understand what causes her occasional calf muscle cramps. Which of the following statements is true regarding cramps? Cramps are caused by excess calcium and ATP. Cramps are caused by a sedentary lifestyle. Cramps are thought to be caused by hyperexcitiability of the motor neuron. Cramps are voluntary, continuous contractions of sarcomeres. QUESTION 14 According to the sliding filament theory, myosin filaments slide past actin filaments during contraction of a muscle because the myosin heads bind to the sarcolemma. True False QUESTION 15 Which of the following statements is true regarding muscle contraction? When a muscle contracts, the A-band shortens. When a muscle contracts, the H-zone becomes narrower (shortens). When a muscle contracts, the lighter I-band becomes wider. When a muscle contracts, the sarcomere remains the same size. QUESTION 16 Colette is having trouble understanding the role of fascia within the musculoskeletal system. Explain, in your own words, how fascia is related to the muscles of the human body. Fascia is sheets of muscle tissue that are located below the surface of the skin. The fascia connective tissue stabilizes and attaches to muscles and enclose organs. They are active and help reduce friction between tissues and organs. Fascia provides strength and stability because the collagen it is made with is wrapped tightly. It is flexible and can resist tension, fascia’s function is dependent on its location in the body. Reference https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK526038/ QUESTION 17 Colette is finding that studies about the benefits of stretching have mixed results. However, stretching can improve flexibility, which is a priority for her. Which of the following statements is true? Stretching increases blood flow to the muscle being stretched. Stretching increases the risk of injury in adolescent and elderly patients. Static stretching has been shown to reduce soreness and increase athletic performance. Stretching weakens the ability of actin and myosin binding process. QUESTION 18 In your own words, describe how acetylcholine, calcium, and ATP are involved in the process of muscle contraction. ATP binds with myosin releasing energy to allowing the head of myosin change position in order to bind with actin. Calcium stays in the sarcoplasm until it is stimulated to be released, once released calcium binds with troponin which causes the troponin to remove from the binding sites. Once calcium ions are put back into the sarcoplasm muscle contractions end which allows the muscle to relax. This is when motor neurons release acetylcholine (neurotransmitter) to bind to receptors in the motor end plates. This happens when action potential moves down the axon of the motor neurons which changed the permeability of the synaptic membrane and causes an increase of calcium. Reference https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-biology/chapter/muscle-contraction-and-locomotion/ QUESTION 19 While Colette is researching weight lifting techniques, she finds contradictory information about the “best” way to build muscle. Which of the following statements is true of skeletal muscle? Fast glycolytic fibers are used for actions like weightlifting, fatigue very quickly, and have very little myoglobin content. The speed of muscle contraction is not dependent on how fast the myosin heads split ATP. Anaerobic exercise depends on oxygen. Slow oxidative fibers have a low myoglobin content and are used for explosive muscle movements, like sprinting. QUESTION 20 Muscle relaxation occurs when acetylcholine is cleaved from its receptors, calcium is pulled back inot the sarcoplasmic reticulum, the myosin is released from its binding site, and the muscle fiber returns to its resting length. True False [Show Less]
BSC 2346 A&P Case Study Module 6 Complete Solution QUESTION 1 Donna, a 42-year-old mother of two, has been experiencing intermittent tingling and numbnes... [Show More] s in both of her feet. She has also had trouble holding a pen while writing. In the past few months, the tingling and numbness in her extremities seemed to subside on its own, so she was not very concerned. Recently, though, the symptoms have spread to her knees and thighs and are persisting. Yesterday, she stumbled when getting out of bed in the morning. When she tried to stand, her right leg was too weak to hold her weight and she fell again. She noticed that she scraped her right knee during the fall, but does not feel any pain from the wound. Donna notices that she has blurry vision and thinks that might be the reason she fell. All of the following indicate sensory deficits EXCEPT: 1. Muscular weakness Tingling in her feet Numbness in her legs Blurry vision QUESTION 2 Donna does not feel the wound on her knee. In a normal situation, describe how this sensory input of a scraped knee would result in the feeling of pain. A scrape to the knee is categorized as a nociceptive pain, this kind of pain is caused by an injury to the tissues of the body such as a scrape, cut, burn, or fracture (myDr, 2012). Nociceptive pain tends to feel like aching, sharp, or throbbing pain that can be constant or intermittent (myDr, 2012). This pain is recognized by the body due to sensory receptors in the skin. A-beta nerve fibers then send signals through the spinal cord and central nervous system to the brain where the sensation of pain is registered, processed, and perceived (myDr, 2012). Reference: https://www.mydr.com.au/pain/pain-and-how-you-sense-it QUESTION 3 Donna has weakness in her right leg, but her left leg is functioning normally. Which components of the nervous system are involved with skeletal muscle movement? Be specific about how the motor impulse moves through the body. Muscle movement is controlled by the somatic nervous system. The motor impulse is sent from neuron to another throughout the body by synapse and also moving along motor fibers. A response is then carried out once the signal reaches the muscle. Reference: https://biologydictionary.net/somatic-nervous-system/ QUESTION 4 Which of the following correctly defines a motor unit? A single muscle and its largest associated nerve All motor units are afferent neurons A single neuron and all the muscle cells it innervates A single muscle and all the neurons that innervate it QUESTION 5 Which of the following statements is true? Donna is experiencing problems related to sensory neurons only. Donna’s symptoms are most likely only related to the brain, and not peripheral nerves. Donna is experiencing problems related to motor neurons only. Donna is experiencing both motor and sensory deficits. QUESTION 6 List and describe any and all symptoms in Donna’s history that could be related to a pathology of her motor neurons. Holding a pen while writing which could be caused by damage to the nerves in the hand or could be caused by neuron syndrome. Reference: https://www.buoyhealth.com/symptoms-a-z/hand-weakness/ QUESTION 7 Donna’s primary care physician wants to screen her for Multiple Sclerosis. Which of the following tests would provide the most definitive diagnosis for MS? MRI Bone scan Complete blood count Muscle strength test QUESTION 8 If Donna does have MS, the disease is affecting her myelin sheath. Briefly describe what happens to the myelin sheath and how it disrupts nerve function in patients with Multiple Sclerosis. In MS the T cells attack the myelin sheath which protects nerve fibers, during this process the T cells partially or completely remove the myelin from the fibers which leaves the nerves unprotected and uninsulated (Fernando Dangond, MD, 2019). Because of this the nerves send delayed or distorted messages to the brain and the brain may then misinterpret those messages. Reference: https://www.emedicinehealth.com/myelin_and_the_central_nervous_system/article_em.htm#how_is_the_myelin_sheath_destroyed_demyelination QUESTION 9 Donna later sees a specialist who wants to perform a spinal tap, which is an analysis of cerebrospinal fluid. Where is cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) found? Inside each neuron’s soma Peripheral nerves Surrounding every synapse and neuromuscular junction in the body Surrounding the structures of the Central Nervous System QUESTION 10 After extensive testing, Donna’s care team concluded that she does have Multiple Sclerosis and have prescribed steroid treatment. How will steroids help alleviate her symptoms? Steroids help to decrease inflammation surrounding the damaged nerve and also helps to suppress the immune system (Multiple Sclerosis Trust, 2017). Reference: https://www.mstrust.org.uk/a-z/steroids-methylprednisolone QUESTION 11 Andre is a 68-year-old grandfather who has been struggling with his memory lately. At first, he was simply forgetting an appointment from time to time or forgetting to take his morning vitamins. However, now his spouse and children have noticed that his forgetfulness is progressing. There have been moments where he forgot how to get home, couldn’t remember his own phone number, or the names of his grandchildren. His family is worried he may have Alzheimer’s disease and they are not sure what to do. Andre’s family decides to do some research about dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Which of the following statements is true? 1. Dementia is a normal form of aging, but Alzheimer’s disease is not. Alzheimer’s disease involves neuron damage and dementia does not. Alzheimer’s disease is not related to dementia. Alzheimer’s disease is a form of dementia. QUESTION 12 Which of the following is NOT a typical symptom of Alzheimer’s disease? Mood and behavior change Disorientation to time and place Forgetting appointments, but remembering them later Difficulty recalling recently learned information QUESTION 13 Which of the following scenarios is considered a normal age-related change in memory? Having trouble remembering the rules of a favorite game Paying less attention to grooming and/or cleanliness Avoiding social activities, hobbies, or sports Misplacing items occasionally and needing to retrace steps to find them QUESTION 14 What are the indications in Andre’s history that would support a diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease? Some indications from Andre’s history in question 11 are that he has had moments that he has forgotten how to get home, he couldn’t remember his grandchildren’s names, and could not remember his own phone number. These are indicators that there is something going on with his memory and it could very well be Alzheimer’s. Reference: Case Study Question 11 QUESTION 15 What other Alzheimer’s disease risk factors might exist that are not given in Andre’s history? List and describe at least 5 risk factors. • The greatest risk factor from Alzheimer’s is increasing age. As we get older, we naturally become forgetful such as maybe misplacing things or occasionally forgetting an appointment (I tend to do this now and I am just turning 24 haha). With Alzheimer’s increasing age is a high risk because the normal forgetfulness that comes with age increases which can be dangerous. • Family history is a risk factor as well because if a person’s mom, dad, or sibling have Alzheimer’s then that person is at a higher risk of developing the disease. If more than one person in the family has it then there is an even higher risk. • Head injury can cause the future risk of dementia, so it is important to protect your brain at all times. • Heart-head connection it has been shown that brain health is linked to heart health. Those with heat disease, diabetes, stroke, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol are at a greater risk for Alzheimer’s or vascular dementia. • Latinos and African-Americans in older age are at a greater risk of developing Alzheimer’s or dementia than Caucasians. Researchers believe this is due to the higher rates of heart disease in these groups of people. Reference: https://www.alz.org/alzheimers-dementia/what-is-alzheimers/causes-and-risk-factors?utm_source=google&utm_medium=paidsearch&utm_campaign=google_grants&utm_content=alzheimers&gclid=CjwKCAjw7anqBRALEiwAgvGgm-Yb9nBvbf9AJlQmAF4CIXEyUCcGfoqeolpH9wQ-UAcwmgwx-wEkdxoCdXMQAvD_BwE QUESTION 16 As Alzheimer’s disease progresses, the brain produces less and less of which neurotransmitter? Acetylcholine Calcium Dopamine Serotonin QUESTION 17 Alzheimer’s disease is diagnosed using all of the following tools EXCEPT: Brain scans Blood tests, urine tests, and spinal fluid analysis Tests to measure memory, problem solving, attention, and language Peripheral nerve biopsy QUESTION 18 Describe how the plaques found in Alzheimer’s disease disrupt nerve impulses. Amyloid plaques are produced and broken down by the body. In Alzheimer’s the plaques are not broken down they instead become hard plaques that are insoluble and attach between neurons which causes a block in the nerve impulses and makes it so that the nerve impulses are unable to travel between neurons. Reference: https://www.brightfocus.org/alzheimers-disease/infographic/progression-alzheimers-disease QUESTION 19 There is no cure for Alzheimer’s disease, but cholinesterase inhibitors can be used to treat symptoms like memory loss or language issues. Briefly discuss how this type of medication affects the physiology of neurons and nerve impulses. The inhibitors block the breaking down of acetylcholine between the neurons at the synapse. Because there is more break down of acetylcholine than there is production the inhibitor compensates for that by causing a delay in the memory decline in Alzheimer’s. Reference: https://www.alz.org/alzheimers-dementia/treatments/medications-for-memory QUESTION 20 Andre’s primary care physician will likely refer him to a specialist. Which type of specialist treats Alzheimer’s disease? With the information you are given about Andre, how do you think his specialist will proceed? List and describe at least 3 treatments, tests, or other options that would make sense for Andre’s stage of memory loss. Andre would see a neurologist because of Alzheimer’s being a neurological disease. Andre will most likely undergo one or more of these tests in order to be provided a definitive diagnosis. A CT or MRI will be done to determine if there are any abnormal structures, volume loss, white matter disease, masses, or vascular abnormalities. Cerebrospinal Fluid Test (CSF) may also be done to test the amyloid and tau proteins, if the results are abnormal it is considered a “biomarker” for Alzheimer’s disease. There are also neuropsychological assessment tools that are used to determine the current cognitive difficulties that Andre is facing, as well as keep track of where he is currently and compared to where he is in a few months. Reference: https://www.brightfocus.org/alzheimers/article/diagnostic-tests-alzheimers-disease?gclid=CjwKCAjw7anqBRALEiwAgvGgmzzYV4OJPXXkYaKvCawOTjf4TYXZYvDyXNhgKJwShOG6ocEjOtcUbxoChlAQAvD_BwE [Show Less]
BSC 2346 A&P Case Study Module 7 Complete Solution QUESTION 1 Scott, a 37-year-old elementary teacher, is seeing his general practitioner for complaints ... [Show More] of general weakness, especially in his lower extremities. He has also been feeling very fatigued lately and has trouble keeping up with his students throughout his work day. His physician notes that he has lost a significant amount of weight in the last 6 months. Scott reports that even simple tasks, such as brushing his hair and getting dressed, can seem like a chore. He has trouble climbing stairs because of his weakness and notices that his speech is slurred, especially at the end of the day. Scott’s physician uses a tongue depressor during his physical examination and Scott begins to gag and has difficulty swallowing. His physician notes muscle wasting and abnormal spasticity in upper and lower extremities bilaterally. All reflexes are normal except the Babinski reflex. Scott’s toes fan out when the sole of his feet are stroked with the reflex hammer. Scott’s symptoms are primarily related to problems with: 1. Neurons of the autonomic nervous system only Motor neurons Sensory neurons Both sensory and motor neurons QUESTION 2 Because Scott’s symptoms are progressively getting worse over a period of several months, we can rule out which of the following diagnoses? Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Multiple Sclerosis Muscular dystrophy Traumatic spinal cord hemisection QUESTION 3 Scott’s physician believes he may have ALS. Briefly describe this condition in your own words. ALS is a progressive disease that attacks the nerve cells in a person’s brain and spinal cord which eventually weakens muscle and causes deterioration of physical functions. Reference http://www.alsa.org/about-als/what-is-als.html QUESTION 4 Which of the following is NOT an early symptom of ALS? Leg weakness Fatigue Difficulty swallowing Loss of balance QUESTION 5 What are the major differences between ALS and MS, physiologically? Describe any pathological differences you find in your research. • ALS is a hereditary disease that affects 1 in 10 people because of mutated protein. • MS is an autoimmune disease that results in mental impairment whereas ALS results in more of physical impairments. • MS in its late stages is almost never debilitating or leads to death, but ALS in its late stage is debilitating, can lead to paralysis, and death. • MS is more common in women and ALS is more common in men. • ALS is not an autoimmune disease but MS is • ALS attacks nerve cells while MS attacks the myelin sheath Reference https://www.medicinenet.com/als_vs_ms_differences_and_similarities/article.htm#ms_multiple_sclerosis_vs_als_lou_gehrigs_disease_quick_comparison_of_differences QUESTION 6 Scott has a positive Babinski reflex. What is the significance of this? What does a positive Babinski reflex mean in adult patients? A positive Babinski reflex in an adult helps prove that there is an underlying nervous system or brain condition that is causing an abnormality in his reflexes. Reference https://www.healthline.com/health/babinski-sign QUESTION 7 ALS stands for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. What does “amyotrophic” mean? What is happening to the body (physiologically) if it is experience “amyotrophic” changes? Amyotrophic means “no muscle nourishment” what happens to the body during amyotrophic is the muscle is not receiving nourishment is begins to waste away or it “atrophies” References http://www.alsa.org/about-als/what-is-als.html QUESTION 8 ALS stands for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. What is the word “lateral” referring to in this case? The neurodegeneration affects the lateral portion of the cerebrum. The symptoms only affect one side of the body. The disease only affects the lateral part of the body. The neurodegeneration affects the lateral columns of the spinal cord. QUESTION 9 The motor neurons affected by ALS are found in the spinal nerves and peripheral branches of those spinal nerves only. True False QUESTION 10 Which of the following statements regarding ALS is true? ALS cannot be cured, but medication can stop the progression and sometimes reverse the effects of ALS. Diagnosing ALS can involve a spinal tap, electromyography, X-rays, MRI, muscle and nerve biopsies, and blood tests. The average survival time for a patient diagnosed with ALS is 20-25 years post-diagnosis. The familial type of ALS is the most common and accounts for 80% of all ALS cases in the U.S. QUESTION 11 Russell is 72 years old and is still working part-time as a professor. He has noticed some arm and hand shaking in the past year, but assumed it must be related to low or high blood sugar levels because he has had some issues with that in the past. However, the shaking/twitching has become more consistent lately and does not seem to be correlated with his diet. Russell’s doctor said that the stress of his job could be the problem, so he took the entire summer off from teaching. When he returned to work in the fall, Russell and his students noticed that his handwriting has become nearly illegible. Drinking a cup of coffee without spilling had also become a challenge. Russell returned to his doctor, who performed a physical exam and a few tests. Here are the notable results: shuffling gait, mild bradykinesia, mild voice tremor, intermittent rigidity of the limbs, and normal EEG. If Russell is having symptoms in his upper extremities, lower extremities, and his speech is slurred, which of the following body regions is most likely experiencing a pathology? 1. Spinal nerves Peripheral nerves Cranial nerves Brain and spinal cord QUESTION 12 Russell’s physician suspects that he may have Parkinson’s disease. List at least two other diagnoses that could fit Russell’s history and test results. Two more diagnoses that fit Russell’s history could be progressive supranuclear palsy and multiple system atrophy Reference https://www.parkinson.org/Understanding-Parkinsons/Diagnosis/Conditions-that-Mimic-Parkinsons QUESTION 13 Which of Russell’s physical exam findings could be related to a brain condition? shuffling gait, mild bradykinesia, mild voice tremor, intermittent rigidity of the limbs Reference Question 11 QUESTION 14 Shuffling gait is often associated with Parkinson’s disease. Which of these symptoms is NOT another common sign of Parkinson’s disease? Babinski reflex Bradykinesia Facial masking Rigidity QUESTION 15 Russell’s physician decides to follow-up with an MRI. If he does have Parkinson’s disease, his MRI may show degeneration in which part of the brain? Corpus callosum Frontal lobe Substantia nigra Wernicke’s area QUESTION 16 Parkinson’s disease involves the loss of a particular neurotransmitter. Which neurotransmitter is involved and how is it associated with the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease? The neurotransmitter associated with Parkinson’s disease is dopamine. Dopamine is connected to the motor symptoms associated with Parkinson’s because it is responsible for sending messages that plan and control muscle and body movement. With no or lack of dopamine our motor functions become impaired. Reference https://www.parkinson.org/understanding-parkinsons/what-is-parkinsons QUESTION 17 Which of the following is NOT a treatment option for Parkinson’s disease? Levodopa Deep brain stimulation Radiation Antidepressant medications QUESTION 18 If Russell is diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease and chooses not to pursue treatment, what is his prognosis? The prognosis he most likely received was neither bad nor good due to Parkinson’s not being life threatening. Although, Parkinson’s is not life threatening it does affect a person’s quality of life. There is no cure so treatment focuses on the symptoms, but if symptoms are left untreated they can lead to falls and other complications. Reference https://www.medicinenet.com/parkinsons_disease/article.htm QUESTION 19 What does the term “neurodegenerative” mean? Briefly describe this term in your own words. (Do not copy a definition.) Neurodegeneration occurs over a period of time, during this time neurons lose their structure, function, or even die. Reference https://www.neurodegenerationresearch.eu/about/what/ QUESTION 20 Which of the following statements is true regarding Parkinson’s disease? It is possible to reverse the effects of Parkinson’s disease. Parkinson’s disease is typically diagnosed before 40 years of age. The loss of neurons is often accompanied by the necrosis of astrocytes and an increase in microglia. Brain imaging typically shows degeneration of neurons in the temporal lobe. [Show Less]
BSC 2346 A&P Case Study Module 8 Complete Solution QUESTION 1 Joanne just celebrated her 50 th birthday and knows that she should probably see her physic... [Show More] ian for a physical. She’s generally in good health, but has been experiencing some odd symptoms lately. Joanne has been experiencing mild to moderate headaches once or twice a week, usually in the morning hours. She feels that her mental acuity “isn’t what it used to be” and forgets the day of the week occasionally. Her husband often complains that she has the TV too loud, but Joanne thinks it’s a normal volume. She has noticed that her feet and toes are colder and she has to wear socks and slippers around the house to be comfortable. A few nights a week, she wakes up in the middle of the night with tingling and numbness in her right hand. Joanne works at a desk all day and she notices a sharp, and sometimes throbbing, pain in her feet bilaterally after a long workday. She was thinking that her symptoms were just part of aging, but wonders if it could be abnormal. She has no history of major trauma, alcoholism, cancer, or inherited diseases. Which of the following choices would best describe the symptoms in Joanne’s feet? 1. Motor neuron dysfunction Sensory neuron dysfunction Both sensory and motor neuron dysfunction Permanent neuron damage to the sympathetic nervous system QUESTION 2 Which of Joanne’s symptoms could be related to peripheral neuropathy? QUESTION 3 All of the following are possible causes for peripheral neuropathy EXCEPT: Vitamin B deficiencies Intervertebral disk herniation Medications Hemorrhage QUESTION 4 If Joanne’s neuropathy is related to diabetes, what are some complications she can expect (and try to avoid)? List and describe at least three complications. QUESTION 5 All of the following might be explanations for Joanne’s right hand symptoms, EXCEPT: Lumbar disc herniation Carpal tunnel syndrome Sleeping on her right shoulder, causing pressure on the brachial plexus Cervical disc herniation QUESTION 6 If Joanne’s hand symptoms area caused by carpal tunnel syndrome, which nerve would be affected? Axillary nerve Ulnar nerve Median nerve Radial nerve QUESTION 7 If Joanne’s hand symptoms are caused by carpal tunnel syndrome, which of her fingers would be affected by the numbness? All digits 1st-3rd digits and medial half of the 4th digit 1st – 3rd digits 1st digit only QUESTION 8 How might Joanne’s lower extremity symptoms be related to her job? Briefly describe how ergonomics might be related to the pathophysiology she is experiencing. QUESTION 9 Dysfunction of the following structures would explain Joanne’s numbness? Dorsal root Lumbar plexus Corticospinal tract Ventral root QUESTION 10 Dysfunction of which the following structures may be the cause of Joanne’s lower extremity symptoms? Cervical plexus Lumbar plexus Sacral plexus Brachial plexus [Show Less]
BSC 2346 Module 08 Quiz Complete Solution • Question 1 1 out of 1 points What statement is false regarding the sympathetic nervous system? Se... [Show More] lected Answer: C. The postganglionic fibers are all very short in length when compared to the postganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system • Question 2 1 out of 1 points Which major nerve is associated or represents the largest and thickest nerve in the body and almost innervates the entire lower limb? Selected Answer: A. Sciatic nerve • Question 3 1 out of 1 points Which of the following choices is NOT an effect of the parasympathetic nervous system? Selected Answer: C. Dilation of the bronchi in the lungs to increase airflow • Question 4 1 out of 1 points Which statement is NOT true regarding spinal nerves? Selected Answer: D. Spinal nerves only innervate the skin, muscles and joints • Question 5 1 out of 1 points A lower motor neuron damage occurs will cause hyporeflexia? Selected Answer: True • Question 6 1 out of 1 points Which of the following choices is NOT an effect of the sympathetic nervous system? Selected Answer: A. Constriction of the pupils • Question 7 1 out of 1 points Which statement is NOT true regarding a nerve? Selected Answer: A. Nerves can always repair themselves no matter the damage or trauma • Question 8 1 out of 1 points A ganglia is a collection of nerve cell bodies within the peripheral nervous system? Selected Answer: True • Question 9 1 out of 1 points Which cranial nerve is associated or represents a majority of its innervation to be parasympathetic in its action and innervates a wide variety of internal organs including the heart, lungs, intestines and liver? Selected Answer: A. CN X: Vagus nerve • Question 10 1 out of 1 points The majority of the cranial nerves originate from the brain stem? Selected Answer: True • Question 11 1 out of 1 points Which type of sensory receptor will detect the sensation of pain? Selected Answer: A. Nociceptor • Question 12 1 out of 1 points Which cranial nerve is associated or represents sensory information of most of the face, assists in innervating the muscles of mastication and is divided into three divisions? Selected Answer: C. CN V: Trigeminal nerve • Question 13 1 out of 1 points Referred pain is when the body perceives somatic pain as visceral pain? Selected Answer: False • Question 14 1 out of 1 points Which two major nerves are associated or represent sensory (touch) information of the hand? Selected Answer: D. Ulnar and Medial nerves • Question 15 1 out of 1 points Which of the following choices is NOT true regarding reflexes? Selected Answer: D. Neural integration (processing) of all reflexes occurs in the brain [Show Less]
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