BIOCHEM C785 /BIOCHEM C785 COMPLETE MODULE 1 - MODULE 5 QU... - $55.45 Add To Cart
BIOCHEM C785 /BIOCHEM C785 Module 1 Questions And Answers.You are designing a piece of DNA for a project and must select the appropriate nitrogenous bases.... [Show More] Which combination of nitrogenous bases would you find most suitable for your work? Select one: a. Adenine, Guanine, Thymine, Cytosine Correct! These nitrogenous bases, in combination with deoxyribose sugar and phosphate, form the nucleotides that are bonded together to form a long polymer of DNA - the carrier of genetic information. b. Adenine Guanine, Uracil and Thymine c. Thymine, Uracil, Adenine, Cytosine d. Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Uracil The DNA sequence 3’-ATGATCCTT-5’ is part of the template strand during DNA replication. Which of the following would be the correct sequence for the newly made DNA? Select one: a. 5’-ATGATCCTT-3’ b. 5’-GCAGCTTCC-3’ c. 5’-TACTAGGAA-3’ d. 5’-UACUAGGAA-3’ Incorrect. In this option U has been used instead of T. Although this is how an mRNA molecule would be created from the DNA, it is not the appropriate complementary base when replicating the DNA. Recall that during replication, the bases on the newly made daughter strand are complementary to the bases on the template strand using the following base pairing rules: A with T and G with C. Which of the following statements is TRUE about RNA? Select one: a. There are several types of RNA in the cell, including mRNA, rRNA, and tRNA. b. RNA nucleotides include the bases A, U, C, and G. c. RNA is single stranded and contains a ribose sugar in the sugar-phosphate backbone. d. All of these Correct! All of these statements about RNA are true. The cell contains mRNA, rRNA, and tRNA molecules, RNA is single stranded, RNA contains a ribose sugar in the sugar-phosphate backbone, and RNA nucleotides include the bases A, U, C, and G. What is the complementary DNA strand for the DNA sequence 5'-ATT CGG GCT CCC -3'? Select one: a. 5' - CCC TCG GGC TTA -3 b. 5'- UAA GCC CGA GGG -3' c. 5'- ATT CGG GCT CCC -3' d. 5'- GGG AGC CCG AAT -3 Correct! The DNA complementary strand would be 5'- GGG AGC CCG AAT -3', when written in the conventional way starting with the 5' end of the strand. A research scientist is trying to create a new strain [Show Less]
BIOCHEM C785 /BIOCHEM C785 Module 2 Questions And Answers.Primary structure consists of the order of ______ in a protein. These are held together with ____... [Show More] __ bonds that are formed by a ______ reaction. Select one: a. Amino acids, peptide, dehydration b. Nucleotides, peptide, dehydration c. Amino acids, peptide, hydrolysis Incorrect. A part of the response is correct. Amino acids are bonded together to make proteins. The bonds holding these amino acids are referred to as peptide bonds. However, the combination of the two amino acids results in loss of a water molecule referred to as dehydration reaction. Hydrolysis of a peptide bond would result in breaking of the bond rather than building the peptide bond. d. Nucleotides, phosphodiester, dehydration Several types of side chain interactions stabilize the tertiary structure of proteins, including which of the following? Select one: a. Hydrogen bonds, phosphodiester bonds, peptide bonds, covalent bonds b. Ion pairs, peptide bonds, protein bonds, hydrogen bonds. c. Ion pairs, hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonds, disulfide bonds Correct! The stability of a tertiary structure of a protein depends on the various interactions and bonds that occur between the side chains of different amino acids. d. Peptide bonds, hydrogen bonds, ester bonds, covalent bonds Which of the following statements is true about the secondary structure of proteins? Select one: a. It includes alpha helices as a common form. b. It includes beta pleated sheets as a common form. c. All of these. d. It involves hydrogen bonding between the backbone atoms. This is partially correct. In order to fulfill their function, proteins must fold in proper, three-dimensional conformations. Which one of the following molecules, available in a cell, is likely to help a protein fold properly? Select one: a. Glycine b. Cysteine c. Chaperone Correct! d. Polymerase Which of the following is true about a misfolded protein? Select one: [Show Less]
BIOCHEM C785 /BIOCHEM C785 Module 3 Questions And Answers.Myoglobin and hemoglobin each have different numbers of subunits and this affects their respectiv... [Show More] e oxygen storage and delivery capabilities. How many subunits do myoglobin and hemoglobin each have? Select one: a. Two, Three b. One, Two c. One, Four Correct! Myoglobin consist of one and hemoglobin consists of four subunits. The number of subunits affects their respective oxygen storage and delivery capabilities. d. Four, One Addition of ______________________alters the shape of the iron–heme complex, and therefore its absorption of light as indicated by its color change from dark purple (the color of hemoglobin in venous blood) to brilliant scarlet (the color of hemoglobin in arterial blood). Select one: a. iron b. oxygen Correct! c. globin subunit d. porphyrin Oxygen binding alters the structure of an entire hemoglobin tetramer, so the structures of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin are noticeably different. The oxyhemoglobin conformation is specifically referred to as the __________ state, whereas the deoxyhemoglobin conformation is referred to as the __________ state. Select one: a. O and D b. Oxygenated and Deoxygenated c. Relaxed or R and Tense or T Correct! Oxygen binding causes a marked change in hemoglobin structure. In the presence of oxygen, hemoglobin is in the Relaxed state or R state. In the absence of oxygen, hemoglobin is in the Tense state or T state. d. There is no difference between the two states Patients with sickle cell anemia have atypical hemoglobin, which will distort the red blood cells into sickle shape during oxygen delivery. The substitution of a hydrophilic amino acid with a ____________amino acid in hemoglobin subunits results in the polymerization of hemoglobin, leading to the sickling of red blood cells. Select one: a. hydrophobic Correct! In case of sickle cell anemia, a hydrophilic amino acid-glutamate is replaced by a non polar-hydrophobic amino acid-valine, leading to polymerization of hemoglobin, fibril formation and eventually sickling of the red blood cells. b. cysteine [Show Less]
BIOCHEM C785 /BIOCHEM C785 Module 4 Questions And Answers.The polysaccharide cellulose is composed of sugar monomers linked through ______ linkages, with t... [Show More] heir CH2OH groups in _________ direction relative to the neighboring monomer. Select one: a. Beta; opposite Correct! Polysaccharides of nondigestible Carbohydrates (the "fiber" in our diets) are held together by bonds known as beta linkages between individual monosaccharides; their CH2OH groups are orientated in an opposite direction relative to its neighbors. These bonds make cellulose indigestible in our bodies. b. gamma; same c. alpha; opposite d. beta; same Which of the following nutrients cannot be broken down to a substance that can participate in the production of ATP via aerobic cellular metabolism? Select one: a. Vitamin E Correct! Vitamins are not nutrients that can be broken down in the process of creating ATP; rather they are essential in small quantities to serve as coenzymes or cofactors in enzymatic processes.Vitamin E is an antioxidant b. Lipids c. Protein d. Complex Carbohydrates Glycolysis produces two ATP molecules. Through what process are these ATP molecules made? Select one: a. Substrate level phosphorylation Correct! The reactions within glycolysis directly form a bond between ADP and Pi to form ATP in the process of substrate level phosphorylation b. Oxidative phosphorylation c. Electron transport chain d. Beta oxidation What product of beta oxidation is able to enter the citric acid cycle? Select one: a. Acetyl CoA Correct! Acetyl CoA made by the process of beta oxidation enters the citric acid cycle b. Glucose c. Glycerol d. Fatty acyl-CoA What process is shared between anaerobic and aerobic Metabolism ? Select one: a. Glycolysis Correct! The pyruvate produced in glycolysis will have different fates based on the availability of oxygen, but glycolysis will occur regardless of oxygen's presence or absence. b. Lactate fermentation [Show Less]
BIOCHEM C785 /BIOCHEM C785 Module 5 Questions And Answers.Which of the following vitamins does not travel through the bloodstream in the form of a lipid mi... [Show More] celle? Select one: a. Vitamin C Correct! Vitamin C is a water soluble vitamin that is not solubilized in lipid micelles. b. Vitamin A c. Vitamin D d. Vitamin K Which lipid has a 4-ring structure? Select one: a. Sterol Correct! Sterols are lipids that contain four hydrocarbon rings. Cholesterol, cortisol, and testosterone are examples of sterols. b. Fatty Acid c. Phospholipid d. Plasminogen Which of the following situations is MOST likely to increase the rate of beta oxidation? Select one: a. No fat diet b. Fasting Correct! Beta-oxidation is a major source of cellular energy, especially during a fast when carbohydrates are not available. Glucagon is released after fasting and promotes beta-oxidation. c. Large pasta meal prior to running a marathon d. Excess intake of Vitamin B7 (biotin) A patient who is on a no-fat diet is at particular risk of deficiency in: Select one: a. Insulin b. Iron c. Vitamin A Correct! Dietary fat enables the formation of lipid micelles, structures that aid in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins like Vitamin A. d. Glucose During starvation, triglycerides can help supply some of the body’s glucose needs. Which breakdown product of triglycerides can be used to make glucose? Select one: a. Acetyl CoA Incorrect. The glycerol component of triglycerides is used to make pyruvate, while the fatty acids are used to make acetyl CoA. Gluconeogenesis (the process of making new glucose), uses pyruvate, not acetyl CoA, to make glucose. b. glycerol c. fatty acids d. diglyceride Which is likely to be liquid at the lowest temperature? Select one: [Show Less]
Biochemistry Readiness Check The 2nd OA Readiness Check is designed to give you additional practice with new assessment-style questions to help prepare fo... [Show More] r success on the OA. Thus, please try to mimic exam-like conditions by taking the test in one <2 hr sitting without any study aids apart from your whiteboard/scrap paper. Note: Responses cannot be edited. You will be able to see the results and feedback after submitting the test. A score of 70% is required for OA approval. If you score below 70%, please speak with a Course Instructor via appointment to discuss next steps prior to retaking this test. Points: 54/67 1 What is the complementary sequence to 3’ ATG CGA ATA 5’? (1/1 Points) 3’ TAT TCG CAT 5’ The correct answer is 3' TAT TCG CAT 5'. Remember complementary means “Matching or Pairing” You have to remember to pay attention to your numbers as well as your letters (A-T, G-C, 5'-3'). The correct answer is 3’ ATG CGA ATA 5’ (original sequence) 5’ TAC GCT TAT 3’ (complementary sequence) But we asked for it in the 3’ direction, so mirror answer to give correct answer: 3’ TAT TCG CAT 5’ 3’ TAC GCT TAT 5’ 3’ GAT AGC ATA 5’ 5’ ATA AGC GTA 3’ 2 Which amino acid sequence would result from this Coding DNA strand? 3’ ATG CAG ATA 5’? (0/1 Points) Tyr Val Tyr The correct answer is Ile Asp Val. We are starting at the coding strand, and have to remember the relationship between coding DNA and mRNA. These two strands are non-complementary and parallel. So we copy the coding strand , change T ---> U, and then write the mRNA sequence: 3’ ATG CAG ATA 5’ coding 3’ AUG CAG AUA 5’ mRNA Mirror by changing orientation: 5’ AUA GAC GUA 3’ Read chart Ile Asp Val (chart is in direction of 5' ---> 3') If you chose Tyr Val Tyr, this answer is incorrect because this is the amino acid sequence that results from the mRNA 5' UAC GUC UAU 3' which would have been complementary to the given coding strand. Coding DNA is non-complementary and parallel to mRNA. Ile Gln Ile Ile Asp Val Leu His Lys 3 Which amino acid sequence would be made from this template DNA strand? 5’ TAT TAC CGA 3’? (1/1 Points) Tyr Tyr Arg Ile Met Ala Ser Val Ile The correct answer is Ser Val Ile because 5’ TAT TAC CGA 3’ template is complementary and antiparallel so 3’ AUA AUG GCU 5’ but it is in the wrong orientation, so mirror 5’ UCG GUA AUA 3’ and read the chart Ser Val Ile Ser His Gln 4 Which of the following are the correct components for a PCR reaction? (1/1 Points) dNTPs, Primer, RNA Polymerase, template RNA dNTPs, Primer, DNA Polymerase, template DNA The correct answer is dNTPs, Primer, DNA Polymerase, template DNA. Notice that all components are about DNA. The Primer is even a DNA Primer. ATP, Primer, mRNA polymerase; template mRNA Acetyl CoA, RNA primer, DNA Ligase, Template phosphate [Show Less]
Biochemistry: Mod 1 DNA = phosphate + deoxyribose sugar + A/T/C/G o Contains two strands. The strands are antiparallel (opposite each other). o 5... [Show More] ’ → 3’ 3’ ← 5’ RNA = phosphate + ribose sugar + A/U/C/G o Single strand, can fold back onto itself and form pairs between itself (stem‐loop). Each nucleic acid is made up of polymers (many monomers) that are called nucleotides. o Nucleotides contain one or more phosphates, a five‐carbon sugar, and a nitrogen base. o Nucleotides are always made in the 5’ to 3’ direction. o 5 is always the beginning of the strand, 3 is the end where nucleotides are added. DNA organization: DNA is wrapped around proteins called histones → nucleosome → chromaƟn fiber→ chromosomes Steps to the central dogma: o Coding DNA → template DNA → mRNA → tRNA (amino acid) o DNA → transcribed to mRNA → translated to protein o Each step is complementary (opposite) to the previous step, but if you skip a step it will be identical to the previous step. o Example 1. Coding DNA strand 5’ AAA TTT GGG CCC 3’ 2. Template DNA strand 3’ TTT AAA CCC GGG 5’ 3. mRNA 5’ AAA UUU GGG CCC 3’ 4. tRNA Lys Phe Gly Pro Pairing: o DNA: A → T o RNA: A → U DNA replication: o Because DNA is a double helix, one strand can be separated and serve as a template for synthesis of a new strand. o Semi‐conservative: each copy of DNA contains a template strand and a new strand. o Steps of replication: Page 2 of 39 o 1. The DNA must be separated, creating a replication fork. This is done by helicase. o 2. Primase attaches an RNA primer, where the replication is to start. o 3. DNA polymerase adds bases to the remaining of the strand until it reaches a stop codon. This is done in fragments, called okazaki fragments. If an error is detected, it removes the nucleotides and replaces them with correct ones, known as exonuclease. o Exonuclease removes all of the RNA primers, and DNA polymerase fills in those gaps. o DNA ligase seals the two strands forming a double helix. DNA → transcribed → mRNA → translated → protein Transcription occurs in the nucleus: o Initiation: RNA polymerase binds to a sequence of DNA called the promoter, found near the beginning of a gene. Each gene has its own promoter. Once bound, RNA polymerase separates the DNA strands, providing the single‐stranded template needed for transcription. Page 3 of 39 o Elongation: One strand of DNA, the template strand, acts as a template for RNA polymerase. As it "reads" this template one base at a time, the polymerase builds an RNA molecule out of complementary nucleotides, making a chain that grows from 5' to 3'. The RNA transcript carries the same information as the non‐template (coding) strand of DNA, but it contains the base uracil (U) instead of thymine (T). [Show Less]
Docmerit is a great platform to get and share study resources, especially the resource contributed by past students and who have done similar courses.
I find Docmerit to be authentic, easy to use and a community with quality notes and study tips. Now is my chance to help others.
University Of Arizona
One of the most useful resource available is 24/7 access to study guides and notes. It helped me a lot to clear my final semester exams.
Docmerit is super useful, because you study and make money at the same time! You even benefit from summaries made a couple of years ago.